DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors by calcium intake level in Korean female college students

  • Kim, Min Ju (Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Kyung Won (Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul Women's University)
  • Received : 2015.05.16
  • Accepted : 2015.08.28
  • Published : 2015.10.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Calcium is important but deficient in diets of young adult women. This study aimed to examine if cognitive factors and eating behaviors differ according to calcium intake based on the Social Cognitive Theory. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Subjects were female college students in Seoul, Korea. Three hundred students completed the questionnaire regarding calcium intake, nutrition knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and eating behaviors. Data on 240 students were analyzed using t-test or ${\chi}^2$-test. Subjects were categorized into two groups, high calcium intake (HC, ${\geq}650mg/day$) and low calcium intake (LC, < 650 mg/day), according to recommended intakes of calcium for women aged 19-29 years. RESULTS: The LC group constituted 77.9% of total subjects. Nutrition knowledge was not different according to calcium intake. Three out of 12 outcome expectations items were significantly different between the HC and LC groups. Subjects in the HC group agreed more strongly with the practical benefits of consuming calcium-rich foods, including 'taste' (P < 0.01) and 'going well with other snacks' (P < 0.05), compared to those in the LC group. Negative expectations of 'indigestion' were stronger in the LC group than HC group (P < 0.001). Among self-efficacy items, perceived ability of 'eating dairy foods for snacks' (P < 0.001), 'eating dairy foods every day' (P < 0.01), and 'eating calcium-rich side dishes at meals' (P < 0.05) differed significantly between the HC and LC groups. Eating behaviors including more frequent consumption of dairy foods, fruits or fruit juice (P < 0.001), anchovy, seaweeds, green vegetables, protein-rich foods (P < 0.05), and less frequent consumption of sweets or soft drinks (P < 0.01) were significantly related to calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that outcome expectations, self-efficacy in consuming calcium-rich foods, and eating behaviors are important in explaining calcium intake. Nutrition education needs to address practical benefits, reduce negative expectations of calcium-rich foods, increase self-efficacy, and modify eating behaviors contributing to calcium intake.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Seoul Women's University

References

  1. Choi HJ, Lee DJ. The characteristics of biochemical bone markers postmenopausal women and its clinical efficacy in evaluating the treatment response. Korean J Bone Metab 2000;7:1-11.
  2. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2009: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010.
  3. Ministry of Health and Welfare. Health Plan 2020. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2011.
  4. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2013: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1). Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014.
  5. Choi JH, Kim SK. Comparison of the dietary factors between normal and osteopenia groups by bone mineral density in Korean female college students. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2008;37:869-78. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.7.869
  6. Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 4th ed. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass; 2008.
  7. Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: a Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall; 1986.
  8. Ahn Y, Kim KW. Beliefs regarding vegetable consumption, selfefficacy and eating behaviors according to the stages of change in vegetable consumption among college students. Korean J Community Nutr 2012;17:1-13. https://doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2012.17.1.1
  9. Ievers-Landis CE, Burant C, Drotar D, Morgan L, Trapl ES, Kwoh CK. Social support, knowledge, and self-efficacy as correlates of osteoporosis preventive behaviors among preadolescent females. J Pediatr Psychol 2003;28:335-45. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsg023
  10. Molaison EF, Connell CL, Stuff JE, Yadrick MK, Bogle M. Influences on fruit and vegetable consumption by low-income black American adolescents. J Nutr Educ Behav 2005;37:246-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60279-0
  11. Bruening M, Larson N, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan P. Predictors of adolescent breakfast consumption: longitudinal findings from Project EAT. J Nutr Educ Behav 2011;43:390-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2011.02.016
  12. Rosen RA, Burgess-Champoux TL, Marquart L, Reicks MM. Associations between whole-grain intake, psychosocial variables, and home availability among elementary school children. J Nutr Educ Behav 2012;44:628-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2010.02.007
  13. Strong KA, Parks SL, Anderson E, Winett R, Davy BM. Weight gain prevention: identifying theory-based targets for health behavior change in young adults. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:1708-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.07.007
  14. Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2012: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-3). Cheongwon: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013.
  15. Rural Development Administration (KR). Food Composition Table. 8th rev. ed. Suwon: Rural Development Administration; 2011.
  16. Lee RD, Nieman DC. Nutritional Assessment. 5th ed. Boston (MA): McGraw-Hill; 2010.
  17. Yoon JS, Lee MJ. Calcium status and bone mineral density by the level of sodium intake in young women. Korean J Community Nutr 2013;18:125-33. https://doi.org/10.5720/kjcn.2013.18.2.125
  18. Min H, Oh HY. A study on osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs and health behaviors among female college students. J Korean Acad Community Health Nurs 2011;22:111-20. https://doi.org/10.12799/jkachn.2011.22.2.111
  19. Kim WK. Relationship among individual, social, environmental factor and leisure time physical activity of undergraduates. Korean J Sports Sci 2012;21:1189-98.
  20. Lee HY. A Study of correlation among the knowledge of the disease, health promoting behaviors and the quality of life in the female patients with osteoporosis. J Rheumatol Health 2001;8:65-85.
  21. Ailinger RL, Lasus H, Braun MA. Revision of the facts on osteoporosis quiz. Nurs Res 2003;52:198-201. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-200305000-00010
  22. Zhang RF, Chandran M. Knowledge of osteoporosis and its related risk factors among nursing professionals. Singapore Med J 2011;52:158-62.
  23. Kim KW, Shin EM. Using the theory of planned behavior to explain dairy food consumption among university female students. Korean J Community Nutr 2003;8:53-61.
  24. Han JS, Kim JH. Calcium intake and cognition on calcium of adolescents in Busan area. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2002;31:1026-34. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2002.31.6.1026
  25. Shin SJ, Shin KR, Yi HR, Ju SK. Knowledge, health belief, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis. J Korean Acad Nurs 2005;35:850-7. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2005.35.5.850
  26. Kim MS, Koo JO. Comparative analysis of food habits and bone density risk factors between normal and risk women living in the Seoul area. Korean J Community Nutr 2008;13:125-33.
  27. Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall MM, Larson N, Story M, Fulkerson JA, Eisenberg ME, Hannan PJ. Secular trends in weight status and weight-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescents from 1999 to 2010. Prev Med 2012;54:77-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.10.003
  28. The Korean Nutrition Society. Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. 1st rev. ed. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society; 2010.
  29. Hong MS, Pak HO, Sohn CY. Comparative study of food behaviors and nutrients intake according to the bone mineral density of female university students. Korean J Food Nutr 2012;25:156-62. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2012.25.1.156
  30. Yu AR, Yang YJ, Jeong SR, Kim JH, Kim YJ, Kwon OR, Oh SY, Kim JH. Calcium intakes in Korean and American populations. J Korean Diet Assoc 2013;19:46-58. https://doi.org/10.14373/JKDA.2013.19.1.046
  31. Jeong HR, Yun S, Kim MH. Evaluation of food and nutrient intake by food frequency questionnaire between normal and risk groups according to the bone mineral density of female college students residing in Gangwon area. Korean J Community Nutr 2010;15:429-44.
  32. Kim BR. A Study on nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, healthrelated life style and health condition of college students in Chuncheon. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2006;35:1215-23. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2006.35.9.1215
  33. Barzegari A, Ebrahimi M, Azizi M, Ranjbar K. A study of nutrition knowledge, attitudes and food habits of college students. World Appl Sci J 2011;15:1012-7.
  34. Sjoberg S, Kim K, Reicks M. Applying the theory of planned behavior to fruit and vegetable consumption by older adults. J Nutr Elder 2004;23:35-46. https://doi.org/10.1300/J052v23n04_03
  35. Lim HJ, Kim MJ, Kim KW. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior. Nutr Res Pract 2015;9:63-70. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2015.9.1.63
  36. Min KH. A study on the eating habits and healthy eating behaviors of the university students in Jeonbuk area. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2013;29:399-406. https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2013.29.4.399
  37. Song YJ, Paik HY, Yu CH. Factors affecting bone mineral density by dietary pattern group for some Korean college women. Korean J Nutr 2006;39:460-6.
  38. An GS, Shin DS. A comparison of the food and nutrient intake of adolescents between urban areas and islands in south Kyungnam. Korean J Community Nutr 2001;6:271-81.
  39. Ro HK. Comparisons of nutrient intakes, dietary behavior and perception about body image between adolescent boys and girls in rural area. Korean J Community Nutr 2000;5:280-8.
  40. Jung KY, Lee YS, Kim SM. The study of dietary behavior, BMI and nutrient intake status in middle school students of Daegu area. J East Asian Soc Diet Life 2005;15:1-10.

Cited by

  1. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students vol.12, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2018.12.2.143