DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

두 채널 비교를 통한 DCT 영역 컬러 이미지 제로-워터마킹

Color Image Zero-Watermarking on DCT Domain through Comparison of Two Channels

  • 김형도 (한양사이버대학교 경영정보학과)
  • 투고 : 2015.05.13
  • 심사 : 2015.06.11
  • 발행 : 2015.09.28

초록

디지털 워터마킹은 복제되어 배포된 디지털 미디어의 저작권을 확인할 수 있는 전자적인 수단을 제공한다. 이미지에 관한 디지털 워터마킹 연구 분야에서는 그레이스케일 이미지에 대한 많은 연구 성과를 바탕으로 최근에는 실생활에서 광범위하게 사용되고 있는 컬러 이미지에 대한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 컬러 이미지는 그레이스케일 이미지에 비하여 각각이 그레이스케일 이미지에 대응될 수 있는 다수의 채널을 가지고 있다. 단순하게 그레이스케일 이미지에 적용되던 기법을 컬러 이미지의 한 채널에 적용하는 연구들도 많은데, 이 채널들 간에는 상관관계가 존재한다는 특성이 고려되지 못하고 있다. 이 논문에서는 DCT 도메인 상에서 컬러 이미지의 두 채널을 비교하여 생성한 특징(이미지 의존 워터마크)을 스크램블링 처리된 저작권 워터마크와 결합하여 워터마크 키를 생성하는 기법을 제시한다. 이 방법은 이미지에 어떤 변경도 하지 않는 제로-워터마킹의 일종으로서, 생성된 키는 워터마크를 호스트 이미지에 삽입하는 워터마킹 기법과 달리 이미지 왜곡이 없다는 장점이 있으며, 샤프닝, 블러링, JPEG 손실 압축, 축소/확대, 잘라내기 등을 이용한 공격에도 강인함을 보여준다.

참고문헌

  1. T. Zhang and Y. Du, "A Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Images Based on DCT," Proceedings of the Int'l Conf. on Information Engineering and Computer Sciences(ICIECS), pp.1-4, Wuhan, 2009(12).
  2. I. El-Fegh, D. Mustafa, Z. S. Zubi, and F. A. El-Mouadib, "Color Image Watermarking Based on the DCT-Domain of Three RGB Color Channels", Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS Int'l Conf. on Evolutionary Computing, Stevens Point, pp.36-39, 2009.
  3. J. Ouyang, G. Coatrieux, B. Chen, and H. Shu, "Color Image Watermarking Based on Quaternion Fourier Transform and Improved Uniform Log-Polar Mapping," Computers and Electrical Engineering, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2015.03.004, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2015.03.004
  4. E. D. Tsougenis, G. A. Papakostas, D. E. Koulouriotis, and E. G. Karakasis, "Adaptive Color Image Watermarking by the Use of Quaternion Image Moments", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.41, No.14, pp.6408-6418, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2014.04.021
  5. J. Li and S. Miao, "The Medical Image Watermarking Using Arnold Scrambling and DFT", Proc. of the 2nd Int'l Conf. on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering(ICCSEE), Hangzhou, pp.192-195, 2013(3).
  6. G. Feng and X. Huang, "An Improved DCT Based Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Text Image", Proceedings of the 2012 Int'l Conf. on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (ASID), Taipei, pp.1-4, 2012(8).
  7. Y. Zhou and W. Jin, "A Novel Image Zero-Watermarking Scheme Based on DWT-SVD," Proceedings of the 2011 Int'l Conf. on Multimedia Technology(ICMT), Hangzhou, pp.2873-2876, 2011(7).
  8. L. Zhang, P. Cai, X. Tian, and S. Xia, "A Novel Zero-Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and Edge Detection", Proceedings of the 4th Int'l Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Shanghai, pp.1016-1020, 2011(10).
  9. X. Leng, J. Xiao, and Y. Wang, "A Robust Image Zero-Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and PCA", Proceedings of the 1st Int'l Conf. on Communications and Info. Processing, Aveiro, pp.484-492, 2012(3).
  10. H.-H. Tsai, Y.-S. Lai, and S.-C. Lo, "A Zero-Watermarking Scheme with Geometrical Invariants Using SVM and PSO against Geometrical Attacks for Image Protection", The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol.86, No.2, pp.335-348, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.08.040
  11. G. Gao and G. Jiang, "Bessel-Fourier Moment-Based Robust Image Zero-Watermarking", Multimedia Tools and Applications, Vol.74, No.3, pp.841-858, 2015(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-013-1701-8
  12. O. Findik, I. Babaoglu, and E. Ulker, "A Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Artificial Immune Recognition System", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.38, pp.1942-1946, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.126
  13. N. V. Dharwadkar, B. B. Amberker, and A. Gorai, "Non-Blind Watermarking Scheme for Color Images in RGB Space Using DWT-SVD", Proceedings of the 2011 Int'l Conf. on Communications and Signal Processing(ICCSP), Calicut, pp.489-493, 2011(2).
  14. I. A. Nasir and A. B. Abdurrman, "A Robust Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Image Normalization," Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering(WCE), London, pp.2238-2243, 2013(7).
  15. P.-P. Niu, X.-Y. Wang, Y.-P. Yang, and M.-Y. Lu, "A Novel Color Image Watermarking Scheme in Nonsampled Contourlet-Domain", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.38, No.3, pp.2081-2098, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.147
  16. A. Al-Gindy, H. Al-Ahmad, R. Qahwaji, and A. Tawfik, "Watermarking of Color Images in the DCT Domain Using Y Channel", Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, pp.1025-1028, 2009.
  17. Q. Su, Y. Niu, Q. Wang, and G. Sheng, "A Blind Color Image Watermarking Based on DC Component in the Spatial Domain", Optik, Vol.124, No.23, pp.6255-6260, 2013(12). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2013.05.013
  18. Y. Zhou and J. Liu, "Blind Watermarking Algorithm Based on DCT for Color Images," Proceedings of the 2nd Int'l Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Tianjin, pp.1-3, 2009(10).
  19. Q. Zhong and Q. Zhu, "A DCT Domain Color Watermarking Scheme Based on Chaos and Multilayer Arnold Transformation," Proceedings of the 2009 Int'l Conf. on Networking and Digital Society, Guiyang, pp.209-212, 2009(5).
  20. R. Eswaraiah, S. A. Edara, and E. S. Reddy, "Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using DWT and DCT Coefficients of R, G, B Color Components", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.50, No.8, pp.38-41, 2012(7). https://doi.org/10.5120/7794-0904
  21. I. Prathap, V. Natarajan, and R. Anitha, "Hybrid Robust Watermarking for Color Images," Computers and Electrical Engineering, Vol.40, pp.920-930, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compeleceng.2014.01.006
  22. X. Wang, C. Wang, H. Yang, and P. Niu, "A Robust Blind Color Image Watermarking in Quaternion Fourier Transform Domain," The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 86, No.2, pp.255-277, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2012.08.015
  23. N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, "Discrete Cosine Transform," IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol.C-23, pp.90-93, 1974(1). https://doi.org/10.1109/T-C.1974.223784
  24. http://www.jpeg.org/jpeg/index.html.
  25. C. Hanqiang, X. Hua, L. Xutao, L. Miao, Y. Sheng, and W. Fang, "A Zero-Watermarking Algorithm on DWT and Chaotic Modulation," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.6247, pp.624716-1-624716-9, 2006(4).
  26. 김형도, 손규식, "CRT 기반의 DCT 영역 제로-워터마킹", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제11권, 제1호, pp.9-15, 2011(1). https://doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2011.11.1.009
  27. Q. Wen, T. Sun, and S. Wang, "Concept and Application of Zero-Watermark", Acta Electronica Sinica, Vol.31, pp.214-216, 2003.
  28. J. Sang, X. Liao, and M. S. Alam, "Neural-Network-Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Digital Images", Optical Engineering, Vol.45, No.9, pp.097006-1-097006-9, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2354076
  29. C. Dong, J. Li, H. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Robust Zero-Watermarking for Medical Image Based on DCT", Proceedings of the 6th Int'l Conf. on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, Seogwipo, pp.900-904, 2011(11).