Color Image Zero-Watermarking on DCT Domain through Comparison of Two Channels

두 채널 비교를 통한 DCT 영역 컬러 이미지 제로-워터마킹

  • 김형도 (한양사이버대학교 경영정보학과)
  • Received : 2015.05.13
  • Accepted : 2015.06.11
  • Published : 2015.09.28


Digital watermarking provides electronic means for proving the copyrights of distributed digital media copies. Research on digital watermarking for images is recently directed toward that for color images extensively used in real life, based on the substantial results in digital watermarking for gray-scale images. Color images have multiple channels, each of which corresponds to a gray-scale image. While there are some watermarking techniques for color images that just apply those for gray-scale images to one channel of the color images, the correlation characteristics between the channels are not considered in them. This paper proposes a zero-watermarking technique that makes keys via combining an image dependent watermark, created through comparing two channels of the color image and copyright watermark scrambled. Due to zero-watermarking, it does not change anything of cover(host) images. Watermark images are robust against some common attacks such as sharpening, blurring, JPEG lossy compression, scaling, and cropping.


  1. T. Zhang and Y. Du, "A Digital Watermarking Algorithm for Color Images Based on DCT," Proceedings of the Int'l Conf. on Information Engineering and Computer Sciences(ICIECS), pp.1-4, Wuhan, 2009(12).
  2. I. El-Fegh, D. Mustafa, Z. S. Zubi, and F. A. El-Mouadib, "Color Image Watermarking Based on the DCT-Domain of Three RGB Color Channels", Proceedings of the 10th WSEAS Int'l Conf. on Evolutionary Computing, Stevens Point, pp.36-39, 2009.
  3. J. Ouyang, G. Coatrieux, B. Chen, and H. Shu, "Color Image Watermarking Based on Quaternion Fourier Transform and Improved Uniform Log-Polar Mapping," Computers and Electrical Engineering,, 2015.
  4. E. D. Tsougenis, G. A. Papakostas, D. E. Koulouriotis, and E. G. Karakasis, "Adaptive Color Image Watermarking by the Use of Quaternion Image Moments", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.41, No.14, pp.6408-6418, 2014.
  5. J. Li and S. Miao, "The Medical Image Watermarking Using Arnold Scrambling and DFT", Proc. of the 2nd Int'l Conf. on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering(ICCSEE), Hangzhou, pp.192-195, 2013(3).
  6. G. Feng and X. Huang, "An Improved DCT Based Zero-Watermarking Algorithm for Text Image", Proceedings of the 2012 Int'l Conf. on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (ASID), Taipei, pp.1-4, 2012(8).
  7. Y. Zhou and W. Jin, "A Novel Image Zero-Watermarking Scheme Based on DWT-SVD," Proceedings of the 2011 Int'l Conf. on Multimedia Technology(ICMT), Hangzhou, pp.2873-2876, 2011(7).
  8. L. Zhang, P. Cai, X. Tian, and S. Xia, "A Novel Zero-Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and Edge Detection", Proceedings of the 4th Int'l Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Shanghai, pp.1016-1020, 2011(10).
  9. X. Leng, J. Xiao, and Y. Wang, "A Robust Image Zero-Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and PCA", Proceedings of the 1st Int'l Conf. on Communications and Info. Processing, Aveiro, pp.484-492, 2012(3).
  10. H.-H. Tsai, Y.-S. Lai, and S.-C. Lo, "A Zero-Watermarking Scheme with Geometrical Invariants Using SVM and PSO against Geometrical Attacks for Image Protection", The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol.86, No.2, pp.335-348, 2013.
  11. G. Gao and G. Jiang, "Bessel-Fourier Moment-Based Robust Image Zero-Watermarking", Multimedia Tools and Applications, Vol.74, No.3, pp.841-858, 2015(2).
  12. O. Findik, I. Babaoglu, and E. Ulker, "A Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Artificial Immune Recognition System", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.38, pp.1942-1946, 2011.
  13. N. V. Dharwadkar, B. B. Amberker, and A. Gorai, "Non-Blind Watermarking Scheme for Color Images in RGB Space Using DWT-SVD", Proceedings of the 2011 Int'l Conf. on Communications and Signal Processing(ICCSP), Calicut, pp.489-493, 2011(2).
  14. I. A. Nasir and A. B. Abdurrman, "A Robust Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Image Normalization," Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering(WCE), London, pp.2238-2243, 2013(7).
  15. P.-P. Niu, X.-Y. Wang, Y.-P. Yang, and M.-Y. Lu, "A Novel Color Image Watermarking Scheme in Nonsampled Contourlet-Domain", Expert Systems with Applications, Vol.38, No.3, pp.2081-2098, 2011.
  16. A. Al-Gindy, H. Al-Ahmad, R. Qahwaji, and A. Tawfik, "Watermarking of Color Images in the DCT Domain Using Y Channel", Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, pp.1025-1028, 2009.
  17. Q. Su, Y. Niu, Q. Wang, and G. Sheng, "A Blind Color Image Watermarking Based on DC Component in the Spatial Domain", Optik, Vol.124, No.23, pp.6255-6260, 2013(12).
  18. Y. Zhou and J. Liu, "Blind Watermarking Algorithm Based on DCT for Color Images," Proceedings of the 2nd Int'l Congress on Image and Signal Processing, Tianjin, pp.1-3, 2009(10).
  19. Q. Zhong and Q. Zhu, "A DCT Domain Color Watermarking Scheme Based on Chaos and Multilayer Arnold Transformation," Proceedings of the 2009 Int'l Conf. on Networking and Digital Society, Guiyang, pp.209-212, 2009(5).
  20. R. Eswaraiah, S. A. Edara, and E. S. Reddy, "Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using DWT and DCT Coefficients of R, G, B Color Components", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol.50, No.8, pp.38-41, 2012(7).
  21. I. Prathap, V. Natarajan, and R. Anitha, "Hybrid Robust Watermarking for Color Images," Computers and Electrical Engineering, Vol.40, pp.920-930, 2014.
  22. X. Wang, C. Wang, H. Yang, and P. Niu, "A Robust Blind Color Image Watermarking in Quaternion Fourier Transform Domain," The Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 86, No.2, pp.255-277, 2013.
  23. N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan, and K. R. Rao, "Discrete Cosine Transform," IEEE Trans. Computers, Vol.C-23, pp.90-93, 1974(1).
  25. C. Hanqiang, X. Hua, L. Xutao, L. Miao, Y. Sheng, and W. Fang, "A Zero-Watermarking Algorithm on DWT and Chaotic Modulation," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol.6247, pp.624716-1-624716-9, 2006(4).
  26. 김형도, 손규식, "CRT 기반의 DCT 영역 제로-워터마킹", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제11권, 제1호, pp.9-15, 2011(1).
  27. Q. Wen, T. Sun, and S. Wang, "Concept and Application of Zero-Watermark", Acta Electronica Sinica, Vol.31, pp.214-216, 2003.
  28. J. Sang, X. Liao, and M. S. Alam, "Neural-Network-Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Digital Images", Optical Engineering, Vol.45, No.9, pp.097006-1-097006-9, 2006.
  29. C. Dong, J. Li, H. Zhang, and Y. Chen, "Robust Zero-Watermarking for Medical Image Based on DCT", Proceedings of the 6th Int'l Conf. on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, Seogwipo, pp.900-904, 2011(11).