Optimization of ultrasonification of slaughter blood for protein solubilization

  • Jeon, Yong-Woo (Environmental Industry Division, Korea Testing Laboratory)
  • Received : 2014.03.25
  • Accepted : 2015.04.19
  • Published : 2015.06.30


In this study, we attempted to solubilize protein in slaughter blood (SB) using ultrasonic technology. The application of ultrasonic technology can make enzymatic degradation of SB more effective, which has no comparable alternative for treatment. The SB was homogenized by grinding it for 10 minutes at 10,000 rpm as a pretreatment for preventing its clotting, and then ultrasonic treatment was attempted to solubilize protein in SB. To maximize the efficiency of ultrasonic treatment for SB, the optimum condition of ultrasonic frequency (UF) was determined to be 20 kHz. To optimize the operation conditions of ultrasonification with 20 kHz of frequency, we used response surface methodology (RSM) based on ultrasonic density (UD) and ultrasonification time (UT). The solubilization rate (SR) of protein (%) was calculated to be $101.304-19.4205X_1+0.0398X_2+7.9411X_1{^2}+0.0001X_2{^2}+0.0455X_1X_2$. From the results of the RSM study, the optimum conditions of UD and UT were determined at 0.5 W/mL and 22 minutes, respectively, and SB treated under these conditions was estimated to have a 95% SR. Also, experimentally, a 95.53% SR was observed under same conditions, accurately reflecting the theoretical prediction of 95%.


Protein solubilization;Response surface methodology;Slaughter blood;Ultrasonification


Supported by : Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET)


  1. Jang YH, Kim HB, Lee MH, Baek H, Choe NH. Utilization and hygiene status of animal blood from slaughterhouse in Korea. Korean J. Vet. Publ. Health. 2011;35:73-79.
  2. Jeon YW, Kang JW, Kim H, Yoon YM, Lee DH. Unit mass estimation and characterization of litter generated in the broiler house and slaughter house. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 2013;85:592-597.
  3. Renata TD, Miriam CC, Valdemiro CS. Bovine blood components: fractionation, composition, and nutritive value. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999;47:231-236.
  4. Timothy JM, John PL. Applied Sonochemistry: The uses of power ultrasound in chemistry and processing. Weinheim: Wiley- VCH; 2002. p. 303.
  5. Chu CP, Chang BV, Liao GS, Jean DS, Lee DJ. Observations on changes in ultrasonically treated waste-activated sludge. Water Res. 2001;35:1038-1046.
  6. Howard A. Ultrasonic disruption. Am. lab. 1975;10:75-85.
  7. Aguirre AM, Bassi A. Investigation of biomass concentration, lipid, production, and cellulose content in chlorella vulgaris cultures using response surface methodology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;110:2114-2122.
  8. Alam Z, Muyibi SA, Toramae J. Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches. J. Environ. Sci. 2007;19:674-677.
  9. Azargohar R, Dalai AK. Production of activated carbon from Luscar char: experimental and modeling studies. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2005;85:219-225.
  10. Box GE, Wilson KB. On the experimental attainment of optimum conditions. J. R. Stat. Sco. 1951;13:1-45.
  11. Emekli-Alturfan E, Kasikci E, Yarat A. Peanuts improve blood glutathione, HDL-cholesterol level and change tissue factor activity in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Eur. J. Nutr. 2007;46:476-482.
  12. Lee WC, Yusof S, Hamid NSA, Baharin BS. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic clarification of banana juice using response surface methodology. J. Food Eng. 2006;73:55-63.
  13. Bashir MJK, Aziz HA, Yusoff MS, Adlan MN. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of ammoniacal nitrogen removal from semi-aerobic landfill leachate using ion exchange resin. Deaslination 2010;254:154-161.
  14. Vining GG, Myers RH. A graphical approach for evaluating response surface design in terms of the mean squared error of prediction. Technometrics 1991;33:315-326.
  15. Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Franson MAH. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 19th ed. Washington DC: American Public Health Association; 1995.
  16. Tiehm A, Nickel K, Zellhorn M, Neis U. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization. Water Res. 2001;35:2003-2009.
  17. Weatherburn MW, Logan JE. The effect of freezing on potassium ferricyanide potassium cyanide reagent used in the cyanmethemoglobin procedure. Clin. Chim. Acta 1964;9:581-584.
  18. An SW, Yoo JY, Choi JY, Park JW. Adsorption characterization of Cd by activated carbon containing hydroxyapatite using response surface methodology. J. Korean Soc. Water Qual. 2009;25:943-950.
  19. Kim DS, Park YS. Optimization of air-plasma and oxygen-plasma process for water treatment using central composite design and response surface methodology. J. Environ. Sci. Int. 2011;20:907-917.
  20. Kim YJ, Park EY, Jeong SM, Lee DH. Optimization for acid-catalyzed hydrothermal hydrolysis of cellulous using response surface methodology. J. Korea Soc. Waste Manag. 2013;30:181-188.
  21. Joglekar AM, May AT. Product excellence through experimental design. In: Graf E, Saguy IS, eds. Food product development from concept to the marketplace. Gaithersburg: An aspen publication; 1990. p. 211-230.
  22. Jalali-Heravi M, Parastar H, Ebrahimi-Najafabadi H. Characterization of volatile components of iranian saffron using factorial-based response surface modeling of ultrasonic extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. J. chromatogr. A 2009;1216:6088-6097.

Cited by

  1. Conventional and non-conventional adsorbents for wastewater treatment pp.1610-3661, 2018,