Application Possibility of Naphthoquinone Derivative Nq 4-6 for Mitigation of Winter Diatom Bloom

겨울철 규조류 대발생 제어를 위한 Naphthoquinone 유도체 Nq 4-6의 적용 가능성

  • Received : 2015.08.09
  • Accepted : 2015.08.31
  • Published : 2015.09.30


We conducted the algicidal activity screening tests using 10 L microcosm to investigate the possibility of the field application of naphthoquinone derivative Nq 4-6 compound as an algicide. We determined its application range to assess its algicidal effects on the phytoplankton and to evaluate the response of the planktonic community and the water environment to this chemical. From results of the microcosm experiments, Nq 4-6 compound showed high algicidal activity on the centric diatoms such as Stephanodiscus hantzschii and Cyclotella meneghiniana, but it had no effect on other phytoplankton. The abundance of S. hantzschii continuously increased in the control, but its cell density decreased 1 day after the Nq 4-6 treatment. In particular, Nq 4-6 showed algicidal activity of 94.4% against S. hantzschii 7 days after the treatment. The dominance index of phytoplankton community was lower in the treatment than in the control. The diversity index, richness index and evenness index of phytoplankton community was higher in the treatment. Environmental factors and biological factors did not show specific changes after the Nq 4-6 compound treatment. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrates that Nq 4-6 is an effective agent for the control of S. hantzschii blooms, and that the microcosm tests play a crucial role when assessing field application.


Algicidal substance;Diatom bloom;Microcosm test;Naphthoquinone;Stephanodiscus hantzschii


Supported by : 환경산업기술원


  1. APHA. 2005. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. APHA-AWWA-WEF, Washington D.C., USA.
  2. Atkinson, R., Tuazon, E.C. and Arey, J. 1990. Reactions of naphthalene in -$N_2O_5-NO_3-NO_2$-air mixtures. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics 22: 1071-1081.
  3. Beakes, G.W., Canter, H.M. and Jaworski, G.H.M. 1988. Zoospore ultrastructure of Zygorhizidium affluens and Z. planktonicum, two chytrids parasitizing the diatom Asterionella formosa. Canadian Journal of Botany 66: 1054-1067.
  4. Bourne, D.G., Jones, G.J., Blakeley, R.L., Jones A., Negri, A.P. and Riddles, P. 1996. Enzymatic pathway for the bacterial degradation of the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin LR. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 4086-4094.
  5. Byun, J.H., Kim, H.K., Mun, S.K. and Kim, B.H. 2014. Water quality improvement by natural plant-mineral composition and field temperatures of a eutrophic lake in South Korea. Journal of Environmental Biology 35: 807-813.
  6. Cho, K.J., Shin, J.K., Kwak, S.K. and Lee, O.H. 1998. Diatom genus Stephanodiscus as eutrophication indicator for water quality assessment. Korea Journal of Environmental Biology 31: 204-210. (in Korean)
  7. Choi, H.J., Kim, B.H., Kim, J.D. and Han, M.S. 2005. Streptomyces neyagawaensis as a control for the hazardous biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in eutrophic freshwaters. Biological Control 33: 335-343.
  8. Choi, J.K., Lee, E.H., Noh, J.H. and Huh, S.H. 1997. The study on the phytoplankton bloom and primary productivity in Lake Shihwa and adjacent coastal areas. Journal of the Korean Society of Oceanography 2: 78-86. (in Korean)
  9. Dawson, R.M. 1998. The toxicology of microcystins. Toxicon 36: 953-962.
  10. Dong, Y., Chin, S.F., Blanco, E., Bey, E. A., Kabbani, W., Xie, X.J., Bornmann, W.G., Boothman, D.A. and Gao, J. 2009. Intratumoral delivery of betalapachone via polymer implants for prostate cancer therapy. Clinical Cancer Research 15: 131-139.
  11. Froelich, P.N., Blanc, V., Mortlock, R.A., Chillrud, S.N., Dunstan, W., Udomkit, A. and Peng, T.H. 1992. River fluxes of dissolved silica to the ocean were higher during glacials: Ge/Si in diatom, rivers, and oceans. Paleoceanography 7: 739-767.
  12. Gumbo, R.J., Ross, G., and Cloete, E.T. 2008. Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms. African Journal of Biotechnology 7: 4765-4773.
  13. Gumbo, R.J., Ross, G. and Cloete, T. 2010. The isolation and identification of predatory bacteria from a Microcystis algal bloom. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 663-671.
  14. Ha, K., Jang, M.H., and Joo, G.J. 2003. Winter Stephanodiscus bloom development in the Nakdong River regulated by an estuary dam and tributaries. Hydrobiologia 506-509: 221-227.
  15. Han, M.S., Lee, H.R., Hong, S.S., Kim, Y.O., Lee, K., Choi, Y.K., Kim, S. and Yoo, K.I., 2002. Ecological studies on Togyo Reservoir system in Chulwon, Korea. V. Seasonal changes of sizefractionated standing crops and chlorophyll a of phytoplankton in Kyunan Stream of Paldang River-Reservoir systems and Togyo Reservoir, Korea. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology 20: 91-99. (in Korean)
  16. Hong, S.K. 2014. A Convention on biological diversity, island biodiversity and strategy of Korea. Journal of Korean Island 26: 187-202. (in Korean)
  17. Ichimura, T. 1971 Sexual cell division and conjugationpapilla formation in sexual reproduction of Closterium strigosum. In, Nishizawa, K. (ed.). Proceedings of the Seventh International Seaweed Symposium. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 208-214.
  18. Jacob, V. 1960. Phytoplankton communities of western Lake Erie and the $CO_2$ and $O_2$ changes associated with them. Limnology and Oceanography 5: 372-380.
  19. Joo, J.H. 2012. Field Assessment for Naphthoquinone Group on the Mitigation of Freshwater Diatom Stephanodiscus Bloom. Master Thesis. Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea. (in Korean)
  20. Jung, S.W., Kim, B.H., Katano, T., Kong, D.S. and Han, M.S., 2008. Pseudomonas fluorescens HYK 0210-SK09 offers species-specific biological control of winter algal blooms caused by freshwater diatom Stephanodiscus hantzschii. Journal of Applied Microbiology 105: 186-195.
  21. Kang, Y.H., Peng, S.W., Jo, S.H. and Han, M.S. 2011. Field assessment of the potential algicidal bacteria against diatom blooms. Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 969-984.
  22. Kim, B.H., Choi, J.Y., Hwang, S.J. and Han, M.S. 2004. Influences of nutrient deficiency on the phytoplankton community in Pal'tang Reservoir, Korea. Korean Journal of Limnology 37: 47-56. (in Korean)
  23. Kim, H.M., Lee, J.H. and An, K.G. 2008. Water quality and ecosystem health assessments in urban stream ecosystem. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology 26: 311-322. (in Korean)
  24. Kooijman, S.A.L.M. 1987. A safety factor for LC50 values allowing for differences in sensitivity among species. Water Research 21: 269-276.
  25. Koss, A.M. and Snyder, W.E. 2005. Alternative prey disrupt biocontrol by a guild of generalist predators. Biological Control 32: 243-251.
  26. Lee, C.W., Jung, C.W., Han, S.W., Kang, L.S. and Lee, J.H. 2001. The removal of algae by oxidation and coagulation process. Journal of Korea Society of Environmental Engineers 23: 1527-1536. (in Korean)
  27. Lim, B.J., Kim, S.H. and Jun, S.O. 2002. Application of various plants as an inhibitor of algal growth: studies in barge enclosure and artificially eutrophicated pond. Korean Journal of Limnology 35: 123-132. (in Korean)
  28. Lurling, M. and Oosterhout, F.V. 2013. Case study on the efficacy of a lanthanum-enriched clay (Phoslock(R)) in controlling eutrophication in Lake Het Groene Eiland (The Netherlands). Hydrobiologia 710: 253-263.
  29. Margalef, R. 1958. Information theory in ecology. General Systems 3: 36-71.
  30. McNaughton, S.J. 1967. Relationships among functional properties of Californian grassland. Nature 216: 168-169.
  31. Menna-Barreto, R.F., Correa, J.R., Cascabullho, C.M., Fernandes, M.C., Pinto, A.V., Soares, M.J. and De Castro, S.L. 2009. Napthtoimidazoles promote different death phenotypes in Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology 136: 499-510.
  32. Monks, T.J., Hanzlik, R.P., Cohen, G.M., Ross, D. and Graham, D.G. 1992. Quinone chemistry and toxicity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 112: 2-16.
  33. Morin, P.J. 2011. Community Ecology. Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
  34. O'Brien, P.J., 1991. Molecular mechanisms of quinone cytotoxicity. Chemico-Biological Interaction 80: 1-41.
  35. Park, M.H., Lee, S.J., Yoon, B.D. and Oh, H.M. 2001. Effects of cell CaSi and bioflocculant on the control of algal bloom. Korean Journal of Environmental Biology 19: 129-135. (in Korean)
  36. Pielou, E.C. 1969. Shannon's formula as a measure of specific diversity: its use and misuse. The American Naturalist 100: 463-465.
  37. Porter, K.G. and Feig, Y.S. 1980. The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnology and Oceanography 25: 943-948
  38. Proctor, L.M. and Fuhrman, J.A. 1990. Viral mortality of marine bacteria and cyanobacteria. Nature 343: 60-62.
  39. Sasaki, J., Aschmann, S.M. and Kwok, E.S.C., Atkinson, R. and Arey, J. 1997. Products of the gas-phase OH and $NO_3$ radical-initiated reactions of naphthalene. Environmental Science Technology 31: 3173-3179.
  40. Shigui, R. 1993. Persistence and coexistence in zooplankton-phytoplankton-nutrient models with instantaneous nutrient recycling. Journal of Mathematical Biology 31: 633-654.
  41. Tilman, D. and Kilham, S.S. 1976. Phosphate and silicate growth and uptake kinetics of the diatoms Asterionella formosa and Cyclotella meneghiniana in batch and semicontinuous culture. Journal of Phycology 12:375-383.
  42. Yamamoto, M., Murai, H. Takeda, A., Okunishi, S. and Morisaki, S. 2005. Bacterial flora of the biofilm Formed on the submerged surface of the reed Phragmites australis. Microbes and Environments 20: 14-24.

Cited by

  1. Novel Algicidal Substance (Naphthoquinone Group) from Bio-derived Synthetic Materials against Harmful Cyanobacteria, Microcystis and Dolichospermum vol.3, pp.1, 2016,