Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer and their Relationship to Development in Asia

  • Ghoncheh, Mahshid (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Salehiniya, Hamid (Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.09.02


Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer, and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Materials and Methods: This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. Data about SIR and SMR for every Asian country for the year 2012 were obtained from the global cancer project. We used a bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between SIR and SMR and HDI and its individual components. Statistical significance was assumed if P<0.05. All reported P-values are two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results: In 2012, 639,824 cases of breast cancer were recorded in Asian countries. Countries with the highest standardized incidence rate (ASIR) (per 100,000) were Israel (80.5), Lebanon (78.7), Armenia (74.1) and the highest standard mortality rate (ASMR) was observed in Pakistan (25.2), Armenia (24.2), and Lebanon (24). There was a positive correlation between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI (r = 0.556, p <0.001), whereas there was a negative correlation between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI (r = -0.051). Conclusions: Breast cancer incidence in countries with higher development is greater, while mortality is greatest in countries with less development. There was a positive and significant relationship between the ASIR of breast cancer and HDI and its components. Also there was a negative but non significant relationship between the ASMR of breast cancer and HDI.


  1. Abbastabar H, Hamidifard P, Roustazadeh A, et al (2013). Relationships between breast cancer and common noncommunicable disease risk factors: an ecological study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5123-5.
  2. Agarwal G, Pradeep PV, Aggarwal V, et al (2007). Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women. World J Sur, 31, 1031-40.
  3. Bray F, Jemal A, Grey N, et al (2012). Global cancer transitions according to the Human Development Index (2008-2030): A population-based study. Lancet Oncol, 13, 790-801.
  4. Ceber E, Mermer G, Okcin F, et al (2013). Breast cancer risk and early diagnosis applications in Turkish women aged 50 and over. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5877-82.
  5. Chen GA, Tarver SL, Wen YF, et al (2014). Correlation study of knowledge and behavior regarding breast care among female undergraduate students in China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 10943-7.
  6. Ferlay J, Hery C, Autier P, et al (2010a). Global burden of breast cancer. in 'breast cancer epidemiology', Eds Springer New York, 1-19
  7. Ferlay J, Shin H-R, Bray F, et al (2010b). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-917.
  8. Ferlay J SI, Ervik M, Dikshit R, et al (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancer base No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer [Online].
  9. Gonzaga CMR, Freitas-Junior R, Curado MP, et al (2015). Temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality in Brazil and correlations with social inequalities: Ecological timeseries study. BMC Public Health, 15.
  10. Grayson M (2012). Breast cancer. Nature, 485, S49-S.
  11. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, et al (2011). Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90.
  12. Kamarudin R, Shah SA, Hidayah N (2006). Lifestyle factors and breast cancer: a case-control study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 7, 51.
  13. Keyghobadi N, Rafiemanesh H, Mohammadian-Hafshejani A, et al (2015). Epidemiology and trend of cancers in the province of kerman: southeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1409-13.
  14. Malik K (2013). Human development report 2013. The rise of the South: Human progress in a diverse world. The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World (March 15, 2013). UNDP-HDRO Human Development Reports.
  15. Rahimzadeh M, Baghestani AR, Gohari MR, et al (2014). Estimation of the cure rate in Iranian breast cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4839-42.
  16. Ramadas A, Qureshi AM, Dominic NA, et al (2015). Sociodemography and medical history as predictors of healthrelated quality of life of breast cancer survivors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1479-85.
  17. Ray K, Mandal S (2004). Knowledge of cancer in West Bengal-a pilot survey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 5, 205-12.
  18. Roshandel G, Boreiri M, Sadjadi A, et al (2014). A Diversity of cancer incidence and mortality in west asian populations. Ann Global Health, 80, 346-57.
  19. Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Qiao Y-l (2014). Managing the changing burden of cancer in Asia. BMC Med, 12, 3-.
  20. Shin H-R, Carlos MC, Varghese C (2012). Cancer control in the Asia pacific region: current status and concerns. Japanese J Clin Oncol, 42, 867-81.
  21. UNDP. 2014. Human development report [Online]. UNDP [Online].
  22. WHO. 2013. The breast cancer conundrum. Bulletin of the World Health Organizat, 91, 626-7. [Online].
  23. WHO. 2015a. Breast cancer: prevention and control [Online].
  24. WHO. 2015b. Cancer country profiles 2014 [Online].
  25. Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Yip CH, et al (2014). Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Pacific region. Cancer Biol Med, 11, 101-15.

Cited by

  1. Incidence, Trends and Epidemiology of Cancers in North West of Iran vol.16, pp.16, 2015,
  2. Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with Development in Asia vol.16, pp.16, 2015,
  3. National Breast Cancer Mortality and Incidence Rates According to the Human Development Index: An Ecological Study vol.05, pp.01, 2016,
  4. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with the Development Index in the World vol.17, pp.1, 2016,
  5. Determinants of Advanced Stage at Initial Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Pakistan: Adverse Tumor Biology vs Delay in Diagnosis vol.17, pp.2, 2016,
  6. A Pilot Study on Screening of BRCA1 Mutations (185delAG, 1294del40) in Nepalese Breast Cancer Patients vol.17, pp.4, 2016,
  7. The Incidence and Mortality of Liver Cancer and its Relationship with Development in Asia vol.17, pp.4, 2016,
  8. Incidence and mortality of liver cancer and their relationship with the human development index in the world vol.3, pp.9, 2016,
  9. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern vol.6, pp.1, 2016,
  10. Urbanization and Socioeconomic Development in Inner Mongolia in 2000 and 2010: A GIS Analysis vol.9, pp.2, 2017,
  11. Correlation between municipal human development index and stroke mortality: a study of Brazilian capitals vol.11, pp.1, 2018,