DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Relative Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Iran

  • Kasaeian, Amir (Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza (Department Social Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Abadi, Alireza (Department of Community and Health, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mahmoodi, Mahmood (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mehrabi, Yadollah (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mohammad, Kazem (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Zare, Ali (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.09.02

Abstract

Background: The survival rate reflecting prognosis of breast cancer patients is usually estimated based on crude survival methods such as observed and cause-specific. In situations where data are based on population-cancer registries, this method may produce biased estimations. This study therefore aimed to estimate the net survival of breast cancer based on relative survival. Materials and Methods: Data for 622 breast cancer patients diagnosed at the Iran Cancer Institute during 1990-95 and tracked till the end of 2000 were analyzed. For estimation of relative survival, Ederer's second method and SAS (9.1) and STATA (11) software were used. Results: Threeyear relative survivals of 85%, 90%, 80% and 67% were observed for age groups 15-44, 55-59, 60-74, and 75+years-old, respectively. A relative survival of approximately one was observed for two subsequent years for age-group 45-59 years-old. A value greater than one for two subsequent years of follow-up was observed in the age-group 60-74 years-old. Conclusions: Tracking the diagnosis of breast cancer, the relative survival decreases as we go to higher age-groups. It is also perceived that through follow-up, relative survival first decreased and then increased a little. The statistical cure point is acceptable for age group 45-59 years-old while for age-groups 15-44 and 60-74 years old is a sign of low quality data for some follow-up intervals.

References

  1. Bell C, Lawrence G, Pheby D, Smith J, Coleman M (1995). The role of cancer registries. Clinical Oncol, 7, 143-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0936-6555(05)80503-5
  2. Berkson J and Gage RP (1950) Calculation of survival rates for cancer. Proceedings of the staff meetings. Mayo Clinic, 25, 270-286.
  3. Berrino F, De Angelis R, Sant M, et al (2007). Survival for eight major cancers and all cancers combined for European adults diagnosed in 1995-99: results of the EUROCARE-4 study. Lancet Oncol, 8, 773-783. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(07)70245-0
  4. Coleman M, Gatta G, Verdecchia A, et al (2003). EUROCARE-3 summary: cancer survival in Europe at the end of the 20th century. Ann Oncol, 14, 128-149. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdg756
  5. Coleman MP, Babb P, Damiecki P, et al (1999) Cancer survival trends in England and Wales, 1971-1995: deprivation and NHS region: Stationery Office London.
  6. Coleman MP, Quaresma M, Berrino F, et al (2008) Cancer survival in five continents: a worldwide population-based study (CONCORD). Lancet Oncol, 9, 730-756. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70179-7
  7. Coviello E, P. W. Dickman, K. Seppa, and A. Pokhrel (2015) Estimating net survival using a life-table approach. Stata J, 15, 173-85.
  8. Cutler SJ and Axtell LM (1963) Partitioning of a patient population with respect to different mortality risks. J Am Statistical Associat, 58, 701-712. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1963.10500880
  9. Dickman P and Coviello E (2015) Estimating and modeling relative survival. Stata J, 15, 186-215.
  10. Dickman PW, Lambert PC, Coviello E, Rutherford MJ (2013) Estimating net survival in population-based cancer studies. Int J Cancer, 133, 519-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.28041
  11. Ederer F, Axtell LM, Cutler SJ (1961) The relative survival rate: a statistical methodology. National Cancer Institute Monograph, 6, 101-121.
  12. Ederer F and Heise H Instructions to IBM 650 Programmers in Processing Survival Computations; 1959. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (MD).
  13. Erhardt CL (1958) What Is The Cause Of Death? J Am Med Associat, 168, 161-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1958.03000020023005
  14. Hakulinen T (1982) Cancer survival corrected for heterogeneity in patient withdrawal. Biometrics, 38, 933-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/2529873
  15. Hinchliffe S, Rutherford M, Crowther M, Nelson C and Lambert P (2012) Should relative survival be used with lung cancer dataandquest. British J Cancer, 106, 1854-1859. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2012.182
  16. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E and Forman D (2011) Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 61, 69-90. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20107
  17. Kerr G, Kunkler I, Langlands A and Rodgert A (1998) (In) curability of breast cancer: a 30-year report of a series of 3933 cases. Breast, 7, 90-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(98)90063-7
  18. Kristinsson SY, Landgren O, Dickman PW, Derolf ÅR and Bjorkholm M (2007) Patterns of survival in multiple myeloma: a population-based study of patients diagnosed in Sweden from 1973 to 2003. J Clin Oncol, 25, 1993-9. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.09.0100
  19. Ngoan lT, Long TT, Lu NT, Hang L (2006) Population-based cancer survival in sites in Viet Nam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 8, 539-42.
  20. Parkin DM (2008). The role of cancer registries in cancer control. Int J Clin Oncol, 13, 102-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10147-008-0762-6
  21. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
  22. Percy C, Stanek 3rd E, Gloeckler L (1981) Accuracy of cancer death certificates and its effect on cancer mortality statistics. Am J Public Health, 71, 242-250. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.71.3.242
  23. Perme MP, Stare J, Esteve J (2012) On estimation in relative survival. Biometrics, 68, 113-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01640.x
  24. Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A, Kirby L, Jones J (2001) Cancer trends in England and Wales, 1950-1999: Stationery Office.
  25. Rahimzadeh M, Baghestani AR, Gohari MR, Pourhoseingholi MA (2014) Estimation of the cure rate in Iranian breast cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4839-42. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.12.4839
  26. Ramadurai M, Ponnuraja C (2011). Non-parametric estimation of the survival probability of children affected by TB meningitis. Int Refereed Res J, 2, 216-27.
  27. Sant M, Aareleid T, Berrino F, et al (2003) EUROCARE-3: survival of cancer patients diagnosed 1990-94-results and commentary. Ann Oncol, 14, 61-118. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdg754
  28. Sant M, Allemani C, Santaquilani M, et al (2009). EUROCARE-4. Survival of cancer patients diagnosed in 1995-1999. Results and commentary. Eur J Cancer, 45, 931-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.11.018
  29. Sarfati D, Blakely T and Pearce N (2010). Measuring cancer survival in populations: relative survival vs cancer-specific survival. Int J Epidemiol, 39, 598-610 https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyp392
  30. Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014). Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin, 64, 9-29. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21208
  31. Utada M, Ohno Y, Shimizu S, Hori M, Soda M (2012). Comparison between overall, cause-specific, and relative survival rates based on data from a population-based cancer registry. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5681-5. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5681
  32. Zare A, Mahmoodi M, Mohammad K, et al (2014). A Comparison between Kaplan-Meier and Weighted Kaplan- Meier Methods of Five-Year Survival Estimation of Patients with Gastric Cancer. Acta Medica Iranica, 52, 764-7.
  33. Zare A, Mahmoodi, M. (2013). Modified kaplan-meier estimator based on competing risks for heavy censoring data. Int J Statist Med Res, 2, 297-304.
  34. Zeng H, Zheng R, Guo Y, et al (2015). Cancer survival in China, 2003-2005: A population-based study. Int J Cancer, 136, 1921-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29227

Cited by

  1. An infodemiology study on breast cancer in Iran vol.36, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1108/EL-03-2017-0062