DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Endometrial Cancer Patients: a Retrospective Study in Turkey

  • Karaman, Erbil (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yuzuncuyil University) ;
  • Karaman, Yasemin (Department of Gynecology, Private Lokman Hekim Hayat Hospital) ;
  • Numanoglu, Ceyhun (Department of Gynecological Oncology, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Research and Teaching Hospital) ;
  • Ark, Hasan Cemal (Department of Gynecology, Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Research and Teaching Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.03.18

Abstract

Background: Hemoglobin A1c(HgA1c) is a marker of poor gylcemic control and elevation HgA1c is associated with increased risk of many cancers. We aimed to determine the HgA1c levels in endometrial cancer cases and any relationship with stage and grade of disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective data review was performed between June 2011 and October 2012 at a tertiary referral center in Turkey. The study included 35 surgically staged endometrial cancer patients and 40 healthy controls. Preoperative HgA1c levels drawn within 3 months before surgery were compared. Also the relationships between HgA1c levels and stage, grade and hystologic type of cancer cases were evaluated. Results: The mean HgA1c levels were statistically significantly higher at $6.19{\pm}1.44$ in endometrial cancer cases than the $5.61{\pm}0.58$ in controls (p=0.027). With endometrial cancer cases, the mean HgA1c level was found to be $6.62{\pm}1.40$ for stage I and $6.88{\pm}1.15$ for stages II-IV (p=0.07). The figures were $6.74{\pm}1.65$ for endometrioid and $6.63{\pm}1.41$ for non-endometrioid type tumors (p=0.56). Mean HgA1c levels of $6.72{\pm}1.14$ for grade 1 and $6.62{\pm}1.42$ for grade 2-3 were observed (p=0.57). Conclusions: HgA1c levels in endometrial cancer patients were statistically higher than healthy controls. However, HgA1c did not show any significant correlation with stage, grade and histologic type in endometrial cancer cases.

Keywords

Hemoglobin A1c(HgA1c);endometrial cancer;tumor stage;grade;histological type

References

  1. Binesh F, Akhavan A, Behniafard N, et al (2014). Endometrial adenocarcinoma: Clinopathologic and survival characteristics in Yazd, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2797-801. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.6.2797
  2. Chang SC, Lacey Jr JV, Brinton LA, et al (2007). Lifetime weight history and endometrial cancer risk by type of menopausal hormone use in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 16, 723-30. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0675
  3. Folsom AR, Anderson KE, Sweeney C, et al (2004). Diabetes as a risk factor for death following endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol, 94, 740-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2004.06.027
  4. Kaaks R, Lukanova A (2001). Energy balance and cancer: the role of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I. Proc Nutr Soc, 60, 91-106. https://doi.org/10.1079/PNS200070
  5. Lawrence C (1987). Smoking, body weight and early stage endometrial cancer. Cancer, 59, 1665-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19870501)59:9<1665::AID-CNCR2820590924>3.0.CO;2-2
  6. LeRoith D, Roberts CT Jr (2003). The insulin-like growth factor system and cancer. Cancer Lett, 195, 127-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(03)00159-9
  7. Levran D, Modan M, Menczer J, et al (1984). Increased rate of glucose intolerance in endometrial cancer-a communitybased study. Gynecol Obstet Invest, 18, 190-3. https://doi.org/10.1159/000299079
  8. Ludwig H (1995). Prognostic factors in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Obstet, 49, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7292(94)02308-L
  9. Mahboubi E, Eyler N, Wynder EL (1982). Epidemiology of cancer of endometrium. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 302, 729-31.
  10. Rinaldi S, Rohrmann S, Jenab M, et al (2008). Glycosylated hemoglobin and risk of colorectal cancer in men and women, the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, 3108-15. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0495
  11. Rohlfing CL, Little RR, Wiedmeyer HM, et al (2000). Use of GHb (HbA1c) in screening for undiagnosed diabetes in the U.S. population. Diabetes Care, 23, 187-91. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.2.187
  12. Siddiqui AA, Spechler SJ, Huerta S, et al (2008) Elevated HbA1c is an independent predictor of aggressive clinical behavior in patients with colorectal cancer: a case-control study. Dig Dis Sci, 53, 2486-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-008-0264-4
  13. Smith RA, Cokkinides V, Brawley OW (2009). Cancer screening in the United States, 2009: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and issues in cancer screening. CA Cancer J Clin, 59, 27-41. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.20008
  14. Stevens EE, Yu S, Sise VM, et al (2012). Hemoglobin A1c and the relationship to stage and grade of endometrial cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet, 286, 1507-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-012-2455-7
  15. Tangjitgamol S, Manusirivithaya S, Srijaipracharoen S, et al (2010). Clinicopathological features including hormonal receptor expression and survival in young endometrial cancer patients: a case control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11, 1487-92.
  16. Travier N, Jeffreys M, Brewer N, et al (2007). Association between glycosylated hemoglobin and cancer risk: a New Zealand linkage study. Ann Oncol, 18, 1414-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdm135