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Late Stage and Grave Prognosis of Esophageal Cancer in Thailand

  • Nun-anan, Pongjarat (Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, and National Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori Research Center) ;
  • Vilaichone, Ratha-korn (Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medicine, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, and National Gastric Cancer and Helicobacter pylori Research Center)
  • Published : 2015.03.18

Abstract

Background: Esophageal cancer is one of the major health concerns in Southeast Asian countries, including Thailand. However, only a limited number of studies have been reported from this region. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics and survival rate of esophageal cancer in Thailand. Materials and Methods: Clinical information, histological features and endoscopic findings were collected from a tertiary care center in central region of Thailand between September 2011- November 2014 and reviewed. Results: A total of 64 esophageal cancer patients including 58 men and 6 women with mean age of 62.6 years were enrolled. Common presenting symptoms were dysphagia (74%), dyspepsia (10%) and hematemesis (8%). Mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 72 days. Esophageal stenosis with contact bleeding was the most common endoscopic finding (55.6%). The location of cancer was found in proximal (16%), middle (50%) and distal (34%) esophagus. Squamous cell carcinoma was far more common histology than adenocarcinoma (84.2% vs 10.5%). However, esophageal adenocarcinoma was significantly more common than squamous cell carcinoma in distal area of esophagus (100% vs 22.9%; p=0.0001, OR=1.6, 95%CI=1.1-2.2). Esophageal cancer stages 3 and 4 accounted for 35.2% and 59.3% respectively. Overall 2-year survival rate was 20% and only 16% in metastatic patients. Conclusions: Most esophageal cancer patients in Thailand have squamous cell carcinoma and nearly all present at advanced stage with a grave prognosis. Screening of high risk individuals and early detection might be important keys to improve the survival rate and treatment outcome in Thailand.

Keywords

Esophageal cancer;late stage;survival;poor prognosis;Thailand

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Higher Education Commission

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