DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Expression of Cancer-Testis Antigens in Stem Cells: Is it a Potential Drawback or an Advantage in Cancer Immunotherapy

  • Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh (Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.04.14

Abstract

Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor associated antigens with a restricted expression pattern in normal gametogenic tissues but expression in a broad range of malignancies. Their expression pattern has made them potential targets for immunotherapy. However, expression of some of these antigens has been demonstrated in normal stem cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs). As CSCs have been shown to be sources of metastasis and tumor recurrence, novel therapies are being focused on their eradication. On the other hand, CTA expression in normal stem cells raises the possibility that CTA based immunotherapies cause side effects in normal tissues.

Keywords

Cancer-testis antigen;cancer stem cell;immunotherapy

References

  1. Covas DT, Panepucci RA, Fontes AM, et al (2008). Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from diverse human tissues share functional properties and gene-expression profile with CD146+ perivascular cells and fibroblasts. Exp Hematol, 36, 642-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2007.12.015
  2. Cronwright G, Le Blanc K, Gotherstrom C, et al (2005). Cancer/testis antigen expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: down-regulation of SSX impairs cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression. Cancer Res, 65, 2207-15. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1882
  3. Curiel TJ (2007). Tregs and rethinking cancer immunotherapy. J Clin Invest, 117, 1167-74. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI31202
  4. De Miguel MP, Fuentes-Julian S, Blazquez-Martinez A, et al (2012). Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells: advances and applications. Curr Mol Med, 12, 574-91. https://doi.org/10.2174/156652412800619950
  5. Ghafouri-Fard S (2012a). Are cancer-testis antigens cancer stem cell markers. Single Cell Biol, 1, 104.
  6. Ghafouri-Fard S (2012b). Immunotherapy in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Immunotherapy, 4, 499-510. https://doi.org/10.2217/imt.12.29
  7. Ghafouri-Fard S, Abbasi A, Moslehi H, et al (2010). Elevated expression levels of testis-specific genes TEX101 and SPATA19 in basal cell carcinoma and their correlation with clinical and pathological features. Br J Dermatol, 162, 772-9.
  8. Ghafouri-Fard S, Abdollahi DZ, Omrani M, et al (2012). shRNA mediated RHOXF1 silencing influences expression of BCL2 but not CASP8 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5865-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.11.5865
  9. Ghafouri-Fard S, Modarressi MH (2009). Cancer-testis antigens: potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Arch Iran Med, 12, 395-404.
  10. Ghafouri-Fard S, Modarressi MH (2012). Expression of cancer-testis genes in brain tumors: implications for cancer immunotherapy. Immunotherapy, 4, 59-75. https://doi.org/10.2217/imt.11.145
  11. Ghafouri-Fard S, Modarressi MH, Yazarloo F (2012b). Expression of testis-specific genes, TEX101 and ODF4, in chronic myeloid leukemia and evaluation of TEX101 immunogenicity. Ann Saudi Med, 32, 256-61.
  12. Ghafouri-Fard S, Ousati Ashtiani Z, Sabah Golian B, et al (2010b). Expression of two testis-specific genes, SPATA19 and LEMD1, in prostate cancer. Arch Med Res, 41, 195-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2010.04.003
  13. Hayes SJ, Hng KN, Clark P, et al (2014). Immunohistochemical assessment of NY-ESO-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma resection specimens. World J Gastroenterol, 20, 4011-6. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i14.4011
  14. Jorgensen C, Djouad F, Apparailly F, et al (2003). Engineering mesenchymal stem cells for immunotherapy. Gene Ther, 10, 928-31. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.gt.3302019
  15. Lifantseva N, Koltsova A, Krylova T, et al (2011). Expression patterns of cancer-testis antigens in human embryonic stem cells and their cell derivatives indicate lineage tracks. Stem cells international, 2011.
  16. Saldanha-Araujo F, Haddad R, Zanette DL, et al (2010). Cancer/Testis antigen expression on mesenchymal stem cells isolated from different tissues. Anticancer Res, 30, 5023-7.
  17. Steinbach D, Hermann J, Viehmann S, et al (2002). Clinical implications of PRAME gene expression in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Genetics Cytogenetics, 133, 118-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-4608(01)00570-2
  18. Tabarestani S, Ghafouri-Fard S (2012). Cancer stem cells and response to therapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5951-8.
  19. Yamada R, Takahashi A, Torigoe T, et al (2013). Preferential expression of cancer/testis genes in cancer stem-like cells: proposal of a novel sub-category, cancer/testis/stem gene. Tissue Antigens, 81, 428-34. https://doi.org/10.1111/tan.12113
  20. Yawata T, Nakai E, Park KC, et al (2010). Enhanced expression of cancer testis antigen genes in glioma stem cells. Mol Carcinog, 49, 532-44 https://doi.org/10.1002/mc.20614
  21. Dianatpour M, Mehdipour P, Nayernia K, et al (2012). Expression of testis specific Genes TSGA10, TEX101 and ODF3 in breast cancer. Iran Red Crescent Med J, 14, 722-6.

Cited by

  1. Expression analysis of cancer-testis genes in prostate cancer reveals candidates for immunotherapy vol.9, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.2217/imt-2017-0083
  2. Melanoma: a prototype of cancer-testis antigen-expressing malignancies vol.9, pp.13, 2017, https://doi.org/10.2217/imt-2017-0091