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Factors Affecting Prognosis in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients

  • Eker, Baki (Department of Internal Medicine, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital) ;
  • Ozaslan, Ersin (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Karaca, Halit (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Berk, Veli (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Bozkurt, Oktay (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Inanc, Mevlude (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Duran, Ayse Ocak (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine) ;
  • Ozkan, Metin (Department of Medical Oncology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine)
  • Published : 2015.04.14

Abstract

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality in developed countries, and it is the third most frequent malignancy in Turkey. There are many biological, genetic, molecular, and tissue-derived prognostic factors for CRCs. In this study, we evaluated prognostic factors in patients who were metastatic at diagnosis or progressed to metastatic disease during follow-up. Patients and Methods: This study included 116 patients with malignancies either in the colon or rectum. Of these, 65 had metastatic disease at diagnosis, and 51 progressed to metastatic disease during the course of the disease. The parameters evaluated were age, gender, comorbidity, performance status and stage of the disease at the beginning, localization, history of surgery, chemotherapy regimen, response to first-line treatment, K-RAS status, site and number of metastases, expression of tumor predictors (CEA, CA19-9), and survival times. A multivariate analysis conducted with factors that considered statistically significant in the univariate analysis. Findings: Median age was 56 (32-82) years and the male/female ratio was 80/36. Eleven patients were at stage II, 40 at stage III, and 65 at stage IV at diagnosis. Twenty three patients had tumor in the right colon, 48 in the left colon, and 45 in the rectum. Ninety seven patients were operated, and 27 had surgical metastasectomy. Ninety three patients received targeted therapy. At the end of follow-up, 61 patients had died, and 55 survived. Metastatic period survival times were longer in the adjuvant group, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (adjuvant group: median 29 months, metastatic group: median 22 months; p=0.285). In the adjuvant group before the metastatic first-line therapy, CEA and CA 19-9 levels were significiantly lower compared to the metastatic group (p<0.005). We also found that patients with elevated tumor predictor (CEA, CA 19-9) levels before the first-line therapy had significiantly poorer prognosis and shorter survival time. Survival was significiantly better with the patients who were younger than 65 years of age, had better initial performance status, a history of primary surgery and metastatectomy, and single site of metastasis. Those who benefitted from the first-line therapy were K-RAS wild type and whose tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9) were not elevated before the first line therapy. Conclusions: Among the patients with metastatic CRC, those who benefited from first-line therapy, had history of metastasectomy, were K-RAS wild type and had low CA 19-9 levels before the first-line therapy, showed better prognosis independent of other factors.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer;prognostic factors;survival;stage at diagnosis

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