Antioxidant, Anticancer and Anticholinesterase Activities of Flower, Fruit and Seed Extracts of Hypericum amblysepalum HOCHST

  • Keskin, Cumali (Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health, Mardin Artuklu University)
  • Published : 2015.04.14


Background: Cancer is an unnatural type of tissue growth in which the cells exhibit unrestrained division, leading to a progressive increase in the number of dividing cells. It is now the second largest cause of death in the world. The present study concerned antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities and protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in methanol extracts of flowers, fruits and seeds of Hypericum amblysepalum. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant properties including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and amounts of total phenolic compounds were evaluated using different tests. Protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in extracts were determined by HPLC. Cytotoxic effects were determined using the MTT test with human cervix cancer (HeLa) and rat kidney epithelium cell (NRK-52E) lines. Acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were measured by by Ellman method. Results: Total phenolic content of H. amblysepalum seeds was found to be higher than in fruit and flower extracts. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the obtained extracts gave satisfactory results versus butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as controls. Reducing power activity was linearly proportional to the studied concentration range: $10-500{\mu}g/mL\;LC_{50}$ values for H. amblysepalum seeds were 11.7 and 2.86 respectively for HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity was $76.9{\pm}0.41$ for seed extract and higher than with other extracts. Conclusions: The present results suggested that H. amblysepalum could be a potential candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cervical cancer, and good source of natural antioxidants.


Hypericum amblysepalum;antioxidant;cytotoxic;anticholinesterase


Supported by : Mardin Artuklu University


  1. Alley MC, Scudiero DA, Monks A, et al (1988). Feasibility of drug screening with panels of human tumor cell lines using a microculture tetrazolium assay. Cancer Res, 48, 589-01.
  2. Arullappan S, Rajamanickam P, Thevar N, Kodimani CC (2014). In vitro screening of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Clinacanthus nutans (acanthaceae) leaf extracts. Trop J Pharm Res, 13, 1455-61.
  3. Avato P (2005). In Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Eds Atta-Ur-Rahman The Netherlands: Elsevier, Vol: 30, pp. 603-34.
  4. Bandoniene D, Murkovic M (2002). The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line hplc-dphh. J Biochem Bioph Meth, 53, 45-9.
  5. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD (2001). St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), review of its chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol, 53, 583-600.
  6. Baris D, Kizil M, Aytekin C, et al (2011). In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of three Hypericum and three Achillea species from Turkey. Int J Food Prop, 14, 339-45.
  7. Brighente IMC, Dias M, Verdi, LG, et al (2007). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Brazilian species. Pharm Biol, 45, 156-61.
  8. Chao CY, Yin MC (2009). Antibacterial effects of Roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice. Foodborne Pathog Dis, 6, 201-6.
  9. Christie PJ, Alfenito MR, Walbot V (1994). Impact of low-temperature stress on general phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin pathways, enhancement of transcript abundance and anthocyanin pigmentation in maize seedlings. Planta, 194, 541-9.
  10. Conforti F, Loizzo MR, Statti AG, et al (2007). Cytotoxic activity of antioxidant constituents from Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. Nat Prod Res, 21, 42-6.
  11. Decosterd AL, Hoffmann E, Kyburz R, et al (1991). A new phloroglucinol derivative from Hypericum calycinum with antifungal and in vitro antimalarial activity. Planta Med, 57, 548-51.
  12. Dorman HJD, Hiltunen R (2004). Fe(III) reductive and free radical-scavenging properties of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) extract and subfractions. Food Chem, 88, 193-99.
  13. Elfalleh W, Hannachi H, Tlili N, et al (2012). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel, seed, leaf and flower. J Med Plants Res, 6, 4724-30.
  14. Ellman GL, Courtney KD, Andres V, et al (1961). A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochem Pharmacol, 7, 88-95.
  15. Ertas A, Boga M, Hasimi N, et al (2014). Antioxidant, anticholinesterase, and antimicrobial activities and fatty acid constituents of Achillea cappadocica Hausskn. et Bornm. Turk J Chem, 38, 592-99.
  16. Frank B, Gupta S (2005). A rewiew of antioxidants and Alzheimer's disease. Ann Clin Psychiatry, 17, 269-86.
  17. Gordon MH (1990). The mechanism of antioxidant action in vitro: In B. J. F. Hudson ed. Food antioxidants London: Elsevier Applied Science 1-18.
  18. Guanghou S, Lai PL (2002). Separation and determination of organic acids and phenolic compounds in fruit juices and drinks by high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A, 977, 89-96.
  19. Gulam W, Haseeb A (2006). Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions. J Carcinog, 5, 14.
  20. Kadoma Y, Fujisawa S (2008). A comparative study of the radical- scavenging activity of the phenol carboxylic acids caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, with or without 2-mercaptoethanol, a thiol, using the induction period method. Molecules, 13, 2488-99.
  21. Kanchana A, Balakrishna M (2011). Anti-cancer effect of saponins isolated from Solanum trilobatum leaf extract and induction of apoptosis in human larynx cancer cell lines. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 3, 356-64.
  22. Karimi P, Shahrokni A, Nezami Ranjbar MR (2014). Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past present and future. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2433-8.
  23. Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulusic T and Jukic M (2006). Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem, 94, 550-7.
  24. Katrin S (2014) Characteristic features of cytotoxic activity of flavonoids on human cervical cancer cells. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 8007-18.
  25. Kma L (2013). Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3429-36.
  26. Lee JY, Hwang WI, Lim ST (2004). Antioxidant and anticancer activities of organic extracts from platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle roots. J Ethnopharmacol, 9, 409-15.
  27. Lou Z, Wang H, Rao S, Sun J, Ma C, Li J (2012). p-Coumaric acid kills bacteria through dual damage mechanisms. Food Control, 25, 550-4.
  28. Lu Y, Foo LY (1997). Identification and quantification of major polyphenols in apple pomace. Food Chem, 59, 187-94.
  29. Mak YW, Chuah LO, Ahmad R, et al (2013). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) and Cassia (Senna bicapsularis L.) flower extracts. J King Saud Uni-Sci, 25, 275-82.
  30. Mojca S, Petra K, Majda H, et al (2005). Phenols, proanthocyanidins, flavones and flavonols in some plant materials and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem, 89, 191-8.
  31. Molyneux P (2004). The use of stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant acivity. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol, 26, 211-9.
  32. Nishida Y, Yokota T, Takahashi T, et al (2006). Deletion of vitamin E enhances phenotype of Alzheimer disease model mouse. Biochem Bioph Res Co, 350, 530-6.
  33. Oskoueian A, Haghighi RS, Ebrahimi M, et al (2012). Bioactive compounds, antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, anticholinesterase and anti inflammatory activities of Prunus mahaleb L. seed. J Med Plants Res, 6, 225-33.
  34. Oyaizu M (1986). Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jpn J Nutr, 44, 307-15.
  35. Ozen HC, Bashan M, Keskin C, et al (2004). Fatty acid and 3-hydroxy fatty acid composition of two Hypericum species from Turkey. Eur J Lipid Sci Tech, 106, 68-70.
  36. Ozen HC, Bashan M, Toker Z, et al (2004). 3-Hydroxy fatty acids from the flowers of Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides. Turk J Chem, 28, 223-6.
  37. Padam P, Acharya G, Genwali R, et al (2013). Isolation of catechin from acacia catechu willdenow estimation of total flavonoid content in camellia sinensis kuntze and camellia sinensis kuntze var. assamica collected from different geographical region and their antioxidant activities. Sci World, 11, 32-6.
  38. Rajandeep K, Karan K, Harpreet K (2011). Plants as a source of anticancer agents. J Nat Prod Plant Resour, 1, 119-24.
  39. Resende R, Moreira PI, Proenca T, et al (2008). Brain oxidative stress in a triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Free Radical Biol Med, 44, 2051-7.
  40. Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, et al (1992). Antioxidative properties of xanthone on the auto oxidation of soybean in cylcodextrin emulsion. J Agr Food Chem, 40, 945-8.
  41. Slinkard K, Singleton VL (1997). Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Viticult, 28, 49-55.
  42. Torres J, Rosazza JPN (2001). Microbial transformations of p-coumaric acid by Bacillus megaterium and Curvularia lunata. J Nat Prod, 64, 1408-14.
  43. Zou Y, Lu Y, Wei D (2004). Antioxidant activity of a flavonoid-rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L in vitro. J Agr Food Chem, 52, 5032-9.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Hypericum Scabrum extract on anxiety and oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a long-term high-fat diet vol.32, pp.2, 2017,