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Biomarkers for Evaluation of Prostate Cancer Prognosis

  • Esfahani, Maryam (Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Ataei, Negar (Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Panjehpour, Mojtaba (Department of Clinical Biochemistry & Bioinformatics Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.04.14

Abstract

Prostate cancer, with a lifetime prevalence of one in six men, is the second cause of malignancy-related death and the most prevalent cancer in men in many countries. Nowadays, prostate cancer diagnosis is often based on the use of biomarkers, especially prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which can result in enhanced detection at earlier stage and decreasing in the number of metastatic patients. However, because of the low specificity of PSA, unnecessary biopsies and mistaken diagnoses frequently occur. Prostate cancer has various features so prognosis following diagnosis is greatly variable. There is a requirement for new prognostic biomarkers, particularly to differentiate between inactive and aggressive forms of disease, to improve clinical management of prostate cancer. Research continues into finding additional markers that may allow this goal to be attained. We here selected a group of candidate biomarkers including PSA, PSA velocity, percentage free PSA, $TGF{\beta}1$, AMACR, chromogranin A, IL-6, IGFBPs, PSCA, biomarkers related to cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, PTEN, androgen receptor, cellular adhesion and angiogenesis, and also prognostic biomarkers with Genomic tests for discussion. This provides an outline of biomarkers that are presently of prognostic interest in prostate cancer investigation.

Keywords

Biomarkers;prostate cancer;PSA;prediction of prognosis

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