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Portulaca oleracea Seed Oil Exerts Cytotoxic Effects on Human Liver Cancer (HepG2) and Human Lung Cancer (A-549) Cell Lines

  • Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Farshori, Nida Nayyar (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University) ;
  • Musarrat, Javed (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University) ;
  • Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University) ;
  • Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed (Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University)
  • Published : 2015.04.29

Abstract

Portulaca oleracea (Family: Portulacaceae), is well known for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor activities. However, cytotoxic effects of seed oil of Portulaca oleracea against human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines have not been studied previously. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Portulaca oleracea seed oil on HepG2 and A-549 cell lines. Both cell lines were exposed to various concentrations of Portulaca oleracea seed oil for 24h. After the exposure, percentage cell viability was studied by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed a concentration-dependent significant reduction in the percentage cell viability and an alteration in the cellular morphology of HepG2 and A-549 cells. The percentage cell viability was recorded as 73%, 63%, and 54% by MTT assay and 76%, 61%, and 50% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and $1000{\mu}g/ml$, respectively in HepG2 cells. Percentage cell viability was recorded as 82%, 72%, and 64% by MTT assay and 83%, 68%, and 56% by NRU assay at 250, 500, and $1000{\mu}g/ml$, respectively in A-549 cells. The 100 $100{\mu}g/ml$ and lower concentrations were found to be non cytotoxic to A-549 cells, whereas decrease of 14% and 12% were recorded by MTT and NRU assay, respectively in HepG2 cells. Both HepG2 and A-549 cell lines exposed to 250, 500, and $1000{\mu}g/ml$ of Portulaca oleracea seed oil lost their normal morphology, cell adhesion capacity, become rounded, and appeared smaller in size. The data from this study showed that exposure to seed oil of Portulaca oleracea resulted in significant cytotoxicity and inhibition of growth of the human liver cancer (HepG2) and human lung cancer (A-549) cell lines.

Keywords

Portulaca oleracea;cytotoxicity;cellular morphology;cell viability;cancer cells

Acknowledgement

Supported by : NSTIP

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