2-deoxy-D-Glucose Synergizes with Doxorubicin or L-Buthionine Sulfoximine to Reduce Adhesion and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells

  • Mustafa, Ebtihal H (Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordan) ;
  • Mahmoud, Huda T (Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Hashemite University) ;
  • Al-Hudhud, Mariam Y (Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Jordan) ;
  • Abdalla, Maher Y (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center) ;
  • Ahmad, Iman M (Division of Radiation Science Technology Education, University of Nebraska Medical Center) ;
  • Yasin, Salem R (Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Hashemite University) ;
  • Elkarmi, Ali Z (Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Hashemite University) ;
  • Tahtamouni, Lubna H (Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, The Hashemite University)
  • Published : 2015.04.29


Background: Cancer metastasis depends on cell motility which is driven by cycles of actin polymerization and depolymerization. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolic oxidative stress have long been associated with cancer. ROS play a vital role in regulating actin dynamics that are sensitive to oxidative modification. The current work aimed at studying the effects of sub-lethal metabolic oxidative stress on actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion and cell migration. Materials and Methods: T47D human breast cancer cells were treated with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), or doxorubicin (DOX), individually or in combination, and changes in intracellular total glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. The expression of three major antioxidant enzymes was studied by immunoblotting, and cells were stained with fluorescent-phalloidin to evaluate changes in F-actin organization. In addition, cell adhesion and degradation ability were measured. Cell migration was studied using wound healing and transwell migration assays. Results: Our results show that treating T47D human breast cancer cells with drug combinations (2DG/BSO, 2DG/DOX, or BSO/DOX) decreased intracellular total glutathione and increased oxidized glutathione, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. In addition, the drug combinations caused a reduction in cell area and mitotic index, prophase arrest and a decreased ability to form invadopodia. The formation of F-actin aggregates was increased in treated T47D cells. Moreover, combination therapy reduced cell adhesion and the rate of cell migration. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure of T47D breast cancer cells to combination therapy reduces cell migration via effects on metabolic oxidative stress.


F-actin;oxidative stress;metastasis;focal adhesion;glutathione


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