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Cancer Screening Adherence of Asian Women According to Biochemically-verified Smoking Status: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • Ko, Young-Jin (Department of Family Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital) ;
  • Kim, Soyeun (Department of Family Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital) ;
  • Kim, Kyae-Hyung (Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital) ;
  • Lee, Kiheon (Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Lee, Cheol Min (Department of Family Medicine, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.05.18

Abstract

Background: Men and women who smoke tend to show less compliance to screening guidelines than non-smokers. However, a recent study in Korea showed that self-reported female smokers constituted less than half of cotinine-verified smokers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify hidden smokers using cotinine-verified method and examine cancer screening behavior according to biochemically verified smoking status. Materials and Methods: Among 5,584 women aged 30 years and older who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 372 (6.66%) hidden smokers were identified based on interview responses and verified by urinary cotinine levels. We compared cancer-screening behavior (cervical, breast, stomach, and colon cancer) of female hidden smokers to that of non-smokers and selfreported smokers by cross-sectional analysis. Results: Hidden female smokers had significantly lower adherence to breast cancer screening compared to non-smokers (aOR (adjusted odds ratio) [95% CI] = 0.71 [0.51-0.98]). Adherence to stomach cancer (aOR [95% CI] = 0.75 [0.54-1.03]) and cervical cancer (aOR [95% CI] = 0.85 [0.66-1.10]) screening was also lower among hidden female smokers compared to non-smokers. Self-reported (current) smokers showed lowest adherence to cervical cancer (aOR: 0.64, 95% CI0.47-0.87), breast cancer (0.47 [0.32-0.68]), stomach cancer (0.66[0.46-0.95]), and colon cancer (0.62 [0.38-1.01]) screening compared to non-smokers, followed by female hidden smokers, then non-smokers. These lower adherence rates of current smokers were attenuated after we incorporated hidden smokers into the current smoker group. Conclusions: Cancer screening adherence of female hidden smokers was lower than cotinine-verified non-smokers but higher than current smokers. Considering the risk of smoking-related cancer among women, identifying hidden smokers is important to encourage appropriate cancer screening.

Keywords

Cancer screening;hidden smoker;female smoker

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