Estimation of Survival Rates in Patients with Lung Cancer in West Azerbaijan, the Northwest of Iran

  • Abazari, Malek (Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Gholamnejad, Mahdia (Pulmonology Department, Urmia University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Roshanaei, Ghodratollah (Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Abazari, Reza (Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University) ;
  • Roosta, Yousef (Internal Medicine Department, Urmia University of Medical Sciences) ;
  • Mahjub, Hossein (Research Center for Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.05.18


Background: Lung cancer is a fatal malignancy with high mortality and short survival time. The aim of this study was to estimate survival rates of Iranian patients with lung cancer and its associate predictive factors. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 355 patients admitted to hospitals of West Azerbaijan in the year 2007. The patients were followed up by phone calls until the end of June 2014. The survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for comparison. The Cox's proportional hazard model was used to investigate the effect of various variables on patient survival time, including age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance, smoking status, tumor type, tumor stage, treatment, metastasis, and blood hemoglobin concentration. Results: Of the 355 patients under study, 240 died and 115 were censored. The mean and median survival time of patients was 13 and 4.8 months, respectively. According to the results of Kaplan-Meier method, 1, 2, and 3 years survival rates were 39%, 18%, and 0.07%, respectively. Based on Cox regression analysis, the risk of death was associated with ECOG group V (1.83, 95% CI: 1 Conclusions: The survival time of the patients with lung cancer is very short. While early diagnosis may improve the life expectancy effective treatment is not available.


Lung neoplasm;cox model;survival;Iran


  1. Berghmans T, Paesmans M, Meert AP, et al (2005). Survival improvement in resectable non-small cell lung cancer with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy: results of a meta-analysis of the literature. Lung Cancer, 49, 13-23.
  2. Bollschweiler E, Wolfgarten E, Nowroth T, et al (2002). Vitamin intake and risk of subtypes of esophageal cancer in Germany. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 128, 575-80.
  3. Fauci AS (2008). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine: McGraw-Hill Medical New York.
  4. Goksel T, Eser S, Guclu SZ, et al (2013). Prognostic factors affecting survival in cases with lung cancer [A lung cancer mapping project in Turkey (LCMPT)]. Eur Res J, 42, 2920.
  5. Grose D, Devereux G, Brown L, et al (2014). Simple and objective prediction of survival in patients with lung cancer: staging the host systemic inflammatory response. Lung Cancer International, 6, 500-9
  6. Arrieta O, Nunez-Valencia C, Reynoso-Erazo L, et al (2012). Health-related quality of life in patients with lung cancer: validation of the Mexican-Spanish version and association with prognosis of the EORTC QLQ-LC13 questionnaire. Lung Cancer. 77, 205-11.
  7. Battafarano RJ, Piccirillo JF, Meyers BF, et al (2002). Impact of comorbidity on survival after surgical resection in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. J Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg. 123, 280-7.
  8. Haghshenas M, Golini-Moghaddam T, Rafiei A, et al (2013). Prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus in patients with cervical cancer: a population-based study. Infect Agent Cancer, 8, 20.
  9. Hajmanoochehri F, Mohammadi N, Zohal MA, Sodagar A, Ebtehaj M (2014). Epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer in a teaching hospital in iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2495.
  10. Haraguchi S,Koizumi K,MikamiI,etal (2012). Clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients, associated with a family history of lung cancer. Int J Med Sciences, 9, 68.
  11. Jiang X, de Groh M, Liu S, Liang H, Morrison H (2012). Rising incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lung in Canada. Lung Cancer, 78, 16-22.
  12. Kawaguchi T, Takada M, Kubo A, et al (2010). Gender, histology, and time of diagnosis are important factors for prognosis: analysis of 1499 never- smokers with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in Japan. J Thoracic Oncol, 5, 1011-7.
  13. Klein M (2005). Survival analysis: a self-learning text: Springer.
  14. Macdonald F, Ford C, Casson A (2004). Molecular biology of cancer: Taylor and Francis.
  15. Mitsudomi T, Morita S, Yatabe Y, et al (2010). Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial. lancet oncol, 11, 121-8.
  16. Mousavi SM, Gouya MM, Ramazani R, Davanlou M, Hajsadeghi N, Seddighi Z (2009). Cancer incidence and mortality in Iran. Ann Oncol, 20, 556-63.
  17. Ozlu T, Bulbul Y (2005). Smoking and lung cancer. Tuberkuloz ve Toraks Dergisi, 53, 200-9.
  18. Puri V, Garg N, Engelhardt EE, Kreisel D, Crabtree TD, Meyers BF, et al (2010). Tumor location is not an independent prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg, 89, 1053-9.
  19. Santoro IL, Ramos RP, Franceschini J, Jamnik S, Fernandes ALG (2011). Non-small cell lung cancer in never smokers: a clinical entity to be identified. Clinics, 66, 1873-7.
  20. Schabath MB, Nguyen A, Wilson P, Sommerer KR, Thompson ZJ, Chiappori AA (2014). Temporal trends from 1986 to 2008 in overall survival of small cell lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer, 86, 14-21.
  21. Silvestri GA, Alberg AJ, Ravenel J (2009). The changing epidemiology of lung cancer with a focus on screening. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 451-4.
  22. Zahir ST, Mirtalebi M (2012). Survival of patients with lung cancer, Yazd, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 4387-91.

Cited by

  1. Estimating the Burden of Cancers Attributable to Smoking Using Disability Adjusted Life Years in Indonesia vol.17, pp.3, 2016,