- Volume 21 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Removal of Ammonia in Aquaculture Wastewater by Electrolysis with Switching Poles
극전환 전해 반응기를 이용한 양식 폐수 내 암모니아 제거
- Received : 2014.07.11
- Accepted : 2014.09.15
- Published : 2015.03.31
We have introduced switching poles in the conventional electrolysis for the removal of ammonia in aquaculture wastewater to prevent the fouling on the electrode surface by the deposition of insoluble metallic compounds. We have also tried to locate the optimal period of switching poles considering the effect of the current loss during switching poles on the free chlorine generation. First, we have observed the decrease of free chlorine generation with the decrease of the period of switching poles due to the expected current loss, and this would lead to the decrease of ammonia removal efficiency. Meanwhile, the measurement of calcium and magnesium concentration in wastewater vs. the period of switching poles have demonstrated that a properly low level of fouling on the electrode surface could be retained with a period of switching poles of less than 60 sec by the decomposition of metallic compounds during switching poles. In a summary, we have optimized the period of switching poles to gain a high level of free chlorine generation and a high level of fouling prevention on the electrode at the same time.
Switching poles;Electrolysis;Free chlorine;Ammonia
- Vijayaraghavan, K., Ramanujam, T. K., and Balasubramanian, N., "In Situ Hypochlorous Acid Generation for the Treatment of Syntan Wastewater," Environ. Eng., 9, 887-891 (1998).
Czarnetzki, L. R., and Janssen, L. J. "Formation of Hypochlorite, Chlorate and Oxygen During NaCl Electrolysis from Alkaline Solutions at an
$RuO_2/TiO_2$Anode," J. Applide Electrochem., 22, 315-324 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01092683
- Ching, L. C., Chang, J. E. and Tseng, S. C., "Indirect Oxidation Effect in Electrochemical Oxidation Treatment of Landfill Leachate," Water Res., 29, 671-678 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00146-X
- Yun, C.-J., Heo, C. D., Kim, S.-W., Kim, I.-S., and Park, S.-C., "Ammonia Removal of Aquaculture Water by Electrochemical Method," Environ. Eng. Res., 21, 1171-1177 (1999).
- Lee, B.-H., Lee, J.-K., Gil, D.-S., and Kawk, S.-Y., "Ammonianitrogen Removal in Sea water by Using Electrolysis," J. Aquac., 10, 435-438 (1997).
- Lin, S. H., and Wu, C. L., "Electrochemical Nitrite and Ammonia Oxidation in Seawater," J. Environ. Sci. Health A, 32, 2125-2138 (1997).
- Lin, S. H., and Wu, C. L., "Electrochemical Removal of Nitrite and Ammonia for Aquaculture," Water Res., 30, 715-721 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(95)00208-1
- Mendia, L., "Electrochemical Processes for Wastewater Treatment," Water Sci. Technol., 14, 331-344 (1982).
- APHA, "Examination of Water and Wastewater," 20th, Standard Method.
- Wei, I. W., and J. C. Morris, "Chlorine-ammonia Breakpoint Reactions Model Mechanism and Computer Simulation," Presented to the 157th National Meeting, American Chemical Society, Minneapolis, pp. 13-18 (1969).
- Montgomery, J. M., Water Treatment Principled and Design, Chap. 12, John Wiley Inc., New York (1985).
- Andrzej, B., "Electrocoaugulation of Biologically Treated Sewage," Ind. Waste Conference Proc., 35, 541-549 (1980).
- Kirk, D. W., Sharifan, H., and Foulkers, F. R., "Anodic Oxidation of Aniline for Waste Water Treatment," J. Appl. Electrochem., 15, 285-292 (1985). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00620944
- Lee, S.-Y., and Lee, H.-K., "Study on the Treatment Efficiency of Leachate by Electrocoagulation Processes," Hyundai Eng. Construction Tech. Laboratory, '97 Abstract Tech. Res., 5, 277-283 (1998)
- White, G. R., The handbook of chlorination. 3nd Ed, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, pp. 196-205 (1992).
- Baker, R. J., Barg, R. H., Carroll, L. J., Faber, H. A., Flentje, M. E., Hudson, H. E., Kjellman, R. E., Kowalski, W. S., Lanbusch, E. J., Loiselle, D. W., and Roberts, C. V., "Water Chlorination Principles and Practices," AWWA, Colorado, pp. 11-25 (1973).
- Katsounaros, I., Ipsakis, D., Polatides C., and Kyriacou, G., "Efficient Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrate to Nitrogen on Tin Cathode at Very High Cathodic Potentials," Electrochimica Acta, 3, 1329-1338 (2006).
- Hydrogen Transfer Route during Hydrothermal Treatment of Lignite Using the Isotope Tracer Method and Improving the Pyrolysis Tar Yield vol.30, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00281