CD26: A Prognostic Marker of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children in the Post Remission Induction Phase

  • Mehde, Atheer Awad (Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia) ;
  • Yusof, Faridah (Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia) ;
  • Mehdi, Wesen Adel (Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences for Women, University of Baghdad) ;
  • Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin (Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, University of Baghdad)
  • Published : 2015.07.13


Background: ALL is an irredeemable disease due to the resistance to treatment. There are several influences which are involved in such resistance to chemotherapy, including oxidative stress as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and presence of hypodiploid cells. Cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CD26 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients in the post remission induction phase, as well as the relationship between CD26 activity and the oxidative stress status. Materials and Methods: CD26, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI), in addition to activity of related enzymes myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase, were analysed in sixty children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase. Results: The study showed significant elevation in CD26, TOS and OSI levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase in comparison to healthy control samples. In contrast, myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased significantly. A significant correlation between CD26 concentration and some oxidative stress parameters was evident in ALL patients. Conclusions: Serum levels of CD26 appear to be useful as a new biomarker of oxidative stress in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase, and levels of antioxidants must be regularly estimated during the treatment of children with ALL.


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL);CD26;glutathione-s-transferase


  1. Battisti V, Maders L, Bagatini M, et al (2008). Measurement of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Clin Biochem, 41, 511-8.
  2. Carbone A, Gloghini A, Zagonel V, et al (1995) The expression of CD26 and CD40 ligand is mutually exclusive in human T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas/leukemias. Blood, 86, 4617-26.
  3. Charalambous A (2012). Risk factors for childhood leukemia: a comprehensive literature review. Health Sci J, 6, 432-68.
  4. Childhood cancer by the ICCC. In: Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al (1975-2010). eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, . Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, based on November 2012 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site. Last accessed June 26, 2014.
  5. Cro L, Morabito F, Zucal N, et al (2009). CD26 expression in mature B-cell neoplasia: its possible role as a new prognostic marker in B-CLL. Hematol Oncol, 27, 140-7.
  6. El-Sabagh M, Ramadan K, El-slam I, IbrahimA (2011).Antioxidants status in acute lymphoblastic leukemic patients M. Am J Medicine Medical Sci, 1, 1-6.
  7. Erel O (2005). A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status. Clin Bio, 38, 1103-11.
  8. Erel O (2004). A novel automated method to measure total antioxidant response against potent free radical reactions. Clin Bio, 37, 112-9.
  9. Habig W, Pabst M, Jakoby W (1979) Glutathione-STransferase the first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biochem, 249, 7130-9.
  10. He J, Gu D, Wu X, et al (2005). Major causes of death among men and women in China. N Engl J Med, 353, 1124-34.
  11. Hole P, Darley R, Tonks A (2011). Do reactive oxygen species play a role in myeloid leukemias? Blood, 117, 5816-26.
  12. Huang M-T, Ferraro T (1992). Phenolic compounds in food and cancer prevention. in 'phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health II: antioxidants and cancer prevention, Vol. 2. ACS symposium series 507' Eds Huang M-T, Ho C-T and Lee CY. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp. 8-34.
  13. Ackermann E, Brill A (1974). Xanthine oxidase activity. in "methods of enzymatic analysis". Ed. Bergmeyer H.U. second Ed., Academic Press, Inc., U.S.A., pp: 521-522.
  14. Aldinucci D, Poletto D, Lorenzon D, et al (2004). CD26 expression correlates with a reduced sensitivity to 2'-deoxycoformycin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in T-cell leukemia/lymphomas. Clin Cancer Res, 10, 508-20.
  15. Kahne T, Lendeckel U, Wrenger S, et al (1999). Dipeptidyl peptidase IV: a cell surface peptidase involved in regulatingTcell growth (review). Int J Mol Med, 4, 3-15.
  16. Kaspers GJ, Smets LA, Pieters R, et al (1995). Favorable prognosis of hyperdiploid common acute lymphoblastic leukemia may be explained by sensitivity to antimetabolites and other drugs: results of an in vitro study. Blood, 85, 751-6.
  17. Klobusicka M, Babusikova O (1999). Expression of CD26 and DPP IV in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison of immunocytochemistry with enzyme cytochemistry. Neoplasma, 46, 299-303.
  18. Kreisel W, Heussner R, Volk B, et al (1982). Identification of the 110000 Mr. glycoprotein isolated from rat liver plasma membrane as dipeptidyl amino peptidase IV. FEBS Lett, 147, 85-8.
  19. Kumar P, Pai PH, Saundar S (2002). NADH-Oxidase and myeloperoxidase activity of visceral leishmanaisis patients. J Med Microbiol, 51, 832-6.
  20. Kumari S, Verma A, Rungta S, et al (2013). Serum prolidase activity, oxidant and anti-oxidant status in non-ulcer dyspepsia and healthy volunteers. ISRN Biochemistry, 182601, 6-9.
  21. Lad MM (2007). Biomedical approach for autism -basics- defeat autism now (DAN) model. [DETAIL]
  22. Lopez-Otin C, Matrisian L (2007). Emerging roles of proteases in tumour suppression. Nat Rev Cancer, 7, 800-8.
  23. Lu G, Hu Y, Wang Q, et al (2013). Molecular basis of binding between novel human coronavirus MERS-CoV and its receptor CD26. Nature, 500, 227-231.
  24. Maryam Z, Sajad A, Maral N, et al (2015). Relationship between exposure to pesticides and occurrence of acute leukemia in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1, 239-244.
  25. Mehde A, Mehdi W, Zainulabdeen J, Abdulbari A (2014).Correlation of inhibin and several antioxidants in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 4843-6.
  26. Molica S, Digiesi G, Mirabelli R, et al (2009). Serum level of CD26 predicts time to first treatment in early B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Haematol, 83, 208-14.
  27. Morgan E, Honig G, Nelson DJ (1981). Acute lymphocytic leukemia in a child with congenital xanthine oxidase deficiency: implications for therapy. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 3, 439-41.
  28. Rauscher GH, Shore D, Sandler DP (2004). Hair dye use and risk of adult acute leukemia. Am J Epidemiol, 160, 19-25.
  29. RybakM, PanasiukA, Czygier M, et al (2012). Total antioxidant status (TAS) in childhood cancer survivors. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica, 50, 468-72.
  30. ShaikhM, AdilS, Shaikh M, Khurshid M (2014). Frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in pakistani adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9495-8.
  31. Wang C-X, Wang X, Liu H-B, et al (2014). Aberrant DNA methylation and epigenetic inactivation of hMSH2 decrease overall survival of ALL patients via modulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 355-62.
  32. Yacoub H, Mahmoud W, Alaa-Eldeen H, et al (2014). New haplotypes of the ATP synthase subunit 6 gene of mitochondrial DNA are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 10433-8.

Cited by

  1. Association of biomarkers with health-related quality of life and history of stressors in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome patients vol.14, pp.1, 2016,
  2. A fluorescent switchable AIE probe for selective imaging of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in vitro and in vivo and its application in screening DPP-4 inhibitors vol.52, pp.17, 2016,