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Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Clinicopathologic and Risk Stratification Study of 255 Cases from Pakistan and Review of Literature

  • Din, Nasir Ud (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital) ;
  • Ahmad, Zubair (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital) ;
  • Arshad, Huma (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital) ;
  • Idrees, Romana (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital) ;
  • Kayani, Naila (Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Section of Histopathology, Aga Khan University Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.07.13

Abstract

Purpose: To describe the clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) diagnosed in our section and to perform risk stratification of our cases by assigning them to specific risk categories and groups for disease progression based on proposals by Fletcher et al and Miettinen and Lasota. Materials and Results: We retrieved 255 cases of GIST diagnosed between 2003 and 2014. Over 59% were male. The age range was 16 to 83 years with a mean of 51 years. Over 70% occurred between 40 and 70 years of age. Average diameter of tumors was 10 cms. The stomach was the most common site accounting for about 40%. EGISTs constituted about 16%. On histologic examination, spindle cell morphology was seen in almost of 85% cases. CD117 was the most useful immunohistochemical antibody, positive in 98%. Risk stratification was possible for 220 cases. Based on Fletcher's consensus proposal, 62.3 gastric, 81.8% duodenal, 68% small intestinal, 72% colorectal and 89% EGISTs were assigned to the high risk category; while based on Miettinen and Lasota's algorithm, about 48% gastric, 100% duodenal, 76% small intestinal, 100% colorectal and 100% EGISTs in our study were associated with high risk for disease progression, tumor metastasis and tumor related death. Follow up was available in 95 patients; 26 were dead and 69 alive at follow up. Most of the patients who died had high risk disease and on average death occurred just a few months to a maximum of one to two years after initial surgical resection. Conclusions: Epidemiological and morphologic findings in our study were similar to international published data. The majority of cases in our study belonged to the high risk category.

Keywords

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor;extra gastrointestinal tumor;risk stratification;Pakistan

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