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Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan

  • Daniyal, Muhammad (Faculty of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, Hamdard University) ;
  • Ahmad, Saeed (Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur) ;
  • Ahmad, Mukhtiar (University College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Poonch) ;
  • Asif, Hafiz Muhammad (Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Poonch) ;
  • Akram, Muhammad (Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Poonch) ;
  • Rehman, Saif Ur (Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Poonch) ;
  • Sultana, Sabira (University College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Poonch)
  • Published : 2015.07.13

Abstract

Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the $2^{nd}$ is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

Keywords

Epidemiology;risk factors;gastric cancer;Pakistan;literature review

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