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Molecular Links between Alcohol and Tobacco Induced DNA Damage, Gene Polymorphisms and Patho-physiological Consequences: A Systematic Review of Hepatic Carcinogenesis

  • Mansoori, Abdul Anvesh (Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Central University) ;
  • Jain, Subodh Kumar (Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Dr. Hari Singh Gour Central University)
  • Published : 2015.07.13

Abstract

Chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse plays a crucial role in the development of different liver associated disorders. Intake promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species within hepatic cells exposing their DNA to continuous oxidative stress which finally leads to DNA damage. However in response to such damage an entangled protective repair machinery comprising different repair proteins like ATM, ATR, H2AX, MRN complex becomes activated. Under abnormal conditions the excessive reactive oxygen species generation results in genetic predisposition of various genes (as ADH, ALDH, CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1) involved in xenobiotic metabolic pathways, associated with susceptibility to different liver related diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is increasing evidence that the inflammatory process is inherently associated with many different cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The generated reactive oxygen species can also activate or repress epigenetic elements such as chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNAs (micro-RNAs), DNA (de) methylation and histone modification that affect gene expression, hence leading to various disorders. The present review provides comprehensive knowledge of different molecular mechanisms involved in gene polymorphism and their possible association with alcohol and tobacco consumption. The article also showcases the necessity of identifying novel diagnostic biomarkers for early cancer risk assessment among alcohol and tobacco users.

Keywords

Chronic alcohol consumption;reactive oxygen species;DNA damage;inflammatory cytokines

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