Comparison of Physiological Activities of Radish Bud (Raphanus sativus L.) according to Extraction Solvent and Sprouting Period

추출용매 및 발아시기에 따른 무순 추출물의 생리활성 비교

  • Han, Jin-Hee (School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Moon, Hye-Kyung (School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Chung, Shin-Kyo (School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kang, Woo-Won (Department of Food and Food Service Industry, Kyungpook National University)
  • 한진희 (경북대학교 식품공학부) ;
  • 문혜경 (경북대학교 식품공학부) ;
  • 정신교 (경북대학교 식품공학부) ;
  • 강우원 (경북대학교 식품외식산업학과)
  • Received : 2014.11.26
  • Accepted : 2015.02.07
  • Published : 2015.04.30


This study extracted radish bud (Raphanus sativus L.) and investigated its nitrite scavenging activity, superoxide dismutases (SOD)-like activity, tyrosinase inhibition activity, xanthine oxidase inhibition activity, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity according to extraction solvent and sprouting period. For nitrite scavenging activity, each extract recorded its highest level of 81.44~89.71% at pH 1.2. Radish bud extracts on sprouting days 4 and 8 showed greater scavenging activities than those on sprouting day 12 at pH 1.2 and pH 4.0. There were differences in scavenging activity according to extraction solvent based on water extract exhibiting improved scavenging activity. Ethanol extract recorded scavenging activity of 16.12% at pH 6.0, which was similar to those of ethanol and methanol radish bud extracts on sprouting day 12. SOD-like activity of radish bud extracts was in the range of 4.57~27.05%. For comparison purposes, SOD-like activity of L-ascorbic acid was 52.15%, which was higher than that of radish bud extracts. Acetone and methanol extracts showed high SOD-like activities on sprouting day 8. SOD-like activity of radish bud extracts on sprouting day 12 significantly decreased to 4.57~15.59%. Radish bud extracts recorded good tyrosinase inhibitory activities on sprouting 8 and 12, whereas methanol extracts recorded the greatest tyrosinase inhibitory activity at 62.65~84.89%. Radish bud extracts recorded xanthine oxidase inhibition activity of 21.26~29.52% on sprouting day 4, and acetone extracts showed the highest level of xanthine oxidase inhibition activity. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity tended to decrease with sprouting period compared early on. ACE inhibitory activity was in the range of 12.48~51.78% according to sprouting period and extraction solvent. Ethanol extracts on sprouting day 8 showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity of 51.78%. These results will hopefully contribute to research into the identification of materials and development of products for natural functional foods.


  1. Lee JJ, Lee YM, Shin HD, Jeong YS, Lee MY. 2007. Effects of vegetable sprout power mixture on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 965-974.
  2. Khalil AW, Zeb A, Mahmmod F, Tariq S, Khattak AB, Shah H. 2007. Comparison of sprout quality characteristics of desi and kabuli type chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.). LWT-Food Sci Technol 40: 937-945.
  3. Troyer JR. 1964. Anthocyanin formation in excised segments of buckwheat-seedling hypocotyls. Plant Physiol 39: 907-912.
  4. Troyer JR. 1958. Anthocyanin pigments of buckwheat hypocotyls. Ohio J Sci 58: 187-188.
  5. Watanabe M. 2007. Anthocyanin compound in buckwheats sprouts and its contribution to antioxidant capacity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 71: 579-582.
  6. Sattar A, Badshah A, Aurangzeb. 1995. Biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in germinating rapeseed cultivars. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 47: 63-70.
  7. El-Adawy TA. 2002. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 57: 83-97.
  8. Park SK. 1989. Food utility value and culture methods of sprout-vegetables. Korea J Fac Hort Res 2: 34-41.
  9. Yoon YH, Lee JG, Jeong JC, Ok HC, Kim CG. 2006. Effect of temperature and light on the antioxidative polyphenols contents in tatary buckwheat sprout. Korean J Crop Sci 51(S): 378-379.
  10. Ha JO, Ha TM, Lee JJ, Kim AR, Lee MY. 2009. Chemical components and physiological functionalities of Brassica campestris ssp rapa sprouts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38: 1302-1309.
  11. Song MR. 2001. Volatile flavor components of cultivated radish (Raphanus sativus L.) sprout. Korean J Food & Nutr 14: 20-27.
  12. Kuo TH, VanMiddlesworth JF, Wolf WJ. 1988. Content of raffinose and oligosaccharides and sucrose in various plant seeds. J Agric Food Chem 36: 32-36.
  13. Kim YJ, Park HT, Han HS. 2006. A study on the production and marketing of sprouts and leaf vegetables. Research Report of Korea Rural Economic Institute, Seoul, Korea. p 84-87.
  14. Jung SW, Lee NK, Kim SJ, Han D. 1995. Screening of tyrosinase inhibitor from plants. Korean J Food Sci Technol 27: 891-896.
  15. Han JH, Moon HK, Chung SK, Kang WW. 2013. Comparison of antioxidant activities of radish bud (Raphanus sativus L.) according to extraction solvents and sprouting period. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 42: 1767-1775.
  16. Gray JI, Dugan Jr LR. 1975. Inhibition of N-nitrosamine formation in model food system. J Food Sci 40: 981-984.
  17. Marklund S, Marklund G. 1974. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47: 469-474.
  18. Vanni A, Gastaldi D, Giunata G. 1990. Kinetic investigation on the double enzymatic activity of the tyrosinase mushroom. Ann Chim 80: 35-60.
  19. Stripe F, Corte ED. 1969. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. J Biol Chem 244: 3855-3863.
  20. Cushman DW, Cheung HS. 1971. Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Pharmacol 20: 1637-1648.
  21. Park YS, Jang HG. 2003. Lactic acid fermentation and biological activities of Rubus coreanus. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 46: 367-375.
  22. Swann PF. 1975. The toxicology of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds. J Sci Food Agric 26: 1761-1770.
  23. Kytopoulos SA. 1987. Ascorbic acid and formation of N-nitroso compounds: possible role of ascorbic acid in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 45: 1344-1350.
  24. Kim HK, Han HS, Lee GD, Kim KH. 2005. Physiological activities of fresh Pleurotus eryngii extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 439-445.
  25. Joo EY, Lee YS, Kim NW. 2007. Polyphenol compound contents and physiological activities in various extracts of the Vitex rotundifolia stems. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 813-818.
  26. Yamada T, Yamamoto M, Tanimura A. 1978. Studies on the formation of nitrosamines (VII); The effects of some polyphenols on nitrosation of diethylamine. J Food Hyg Soc Jpn 19: 224-227.
  27. Shenoy NR, Choughuley ASU. 1989. Effect of certain phenolics on nitrosamine formation. J Agric Food Chem 37: 721-725.
  28. Deby C, Goutier R. 1990. New perspectives on the biochemistry of superoxide anion and the efficiency of superoxide dismutase. Biochem Phamacol 39: 399-405.
  29. Kuramoto T. 1992. Development and application of food materials from plant extract such as SOD. Food Process 27: 22-23.
  30. Gupta AS, Webb RP, Holaday AS, Allen RD. 1993. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase protects plants from oxidative stress. Plant Physiol 103: 1067-1073.
  31. Lee HJ, Do JR, Kwon JH, Kim HK. 2010. Physiological activities of Cucurbita moschata Duch. extracts with different extraction conditions. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 165-171.
  32. Lee HJ, Kim MJ, Park JH, Park E. 2012. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of white and yellow Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 289-294.
  33. Lee HT, Kim JH, Lee SS. 2009. Comparison of biological activity between soybean pastes adding sword been and general soybean pastes. J Fd Hyg Safety 24: 94-101.
  34. Lee HJ, Do JR, Kwon JH, Kim HK. 2011. Physiological activities of extracts from different parts of Cudrania tricuspidata. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 942-948.
  35. Kim JS, Lee JY, Park KT, An BJ, Lee SH, Cho YJ. 2013. The biological activity from Prunella vulgaris extracts. Korean J Food Preserv 20: 234-241.
  36. An BJ, Lee JT, Kwak JH, Park JM, Lee JY, Park TS, Son JH, Lee LS, Yun SS. 2004. Physiological activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch) extracts. Kor J Herbology 19: 1-7.
  37. Storch J, Ferber E. 1988. Detergent-amplified chemiluminescence of lucigenin for determination of superoxide anion production by NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. Anal Biochem 169: 262-267.
  38. Kim MY, Lee SH, Jang GY, Park HJ, Meishan L, Kim SJ, Lee YR, Lee JS, Jeong HS. 2013. Enzyme inhibition activities of ethanol extracts from germinating rough rice (Oryza sativar L.). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 42: 917-923.
  39. Kim HY, Lee SH, Hwang IG, Kim TM, Park DS, Kim JH, Kim DJ, Lee JS, Jeong HS. 2012. Antioxidant activity and anticancer effects of rough rice (Oryza sativa L.) by germination periods. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 14-19.
  40. Das M, Soffer RL. 1975. Pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme. Structural and catalytic properties. J Biol Chem 250: 6762-6768.
  41. Oh SJ, Kim SH, Kim SK, Baek YJ, Cho KH. 1997. Angiotensin I -converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the $\kappa$-casein fragments hydrolysated by chymosin, pepsin, and trypsin. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 1316-1318.
  42. Maruyama S, Nakagomi K, Tomizuka N, Suzuki H. 1985. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of casein. Agric Biol Chem 49: 1405-1409.
  43. Cho YJ, Chun SS, Cha WS, Park JH, Lee KH, Kim JH, Kwon HJ, Yoon SJ. 2005. Antioxidative and antihypertensive effects of Lycii fructus extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 1308-1313.
  44. Cho EK, Yoo SK, Chol YJ. 2011. Inhibitory effects Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens) extracts on angiotensin converting enzyme and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase. J Life Sci 21: 811-818.
  45. Lee SE, Bang JG, Seong NS. 2004. Inhibitory activity on angiotensin converting enzyme and antioxidant activity of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. cortex extract. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 12: 79-84.

Cited by

  1. Anti-Diabetic, Alcohol-Metabolizing, and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Leaf Extracts vol.45, pp.6, 2016,
  2. Comparative Studies of the in vitro Antioxidant Properties of 80% Ethanol or Water Extracts of Formica rufa L. Gastrodia elata Blume, Cnidium officinale Makino and Their's Mixture vol.34, pp.1, 2018,