Temperature Control of a CSTR using a Nonlinear PID Controller

비선형 PID 제어기를 사용한 CSTR의 온도 제어

  • Lee, Joo-Yeon (School of Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • So, Gun-Baek (School of Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Lee, Yun-Hyung (Education and Research Team, Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology) ;
  • So, Myung-Ok (Division of Marine Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University) ;
  • Jin, Gang-Gyoo (Division of IT, Korea Maritime and Ocean University)
  • 이주연 (해양대학교 해양과학기술대학원) ;
  • 소건백 (해양대학교 해양과학기술대학원) ;
  • 이윤형 (한국해양수산연수원 교육연구팀) ;
  • 소명옥 (한국해양대학교 기관공학부) ;
  • 진강규 (한국해양대학교 IT공학부)
  • Received : 2014.11.28
  • Accepted : 2015.02.23
  • Published : 2015.05.01


CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor) which plays a key role in the chemical plants exhibits highly nonlinear behavior as well as time-varying behavior during operation. The control of CSTRs in the whole operating range has been a challenging problem to control engineers. So, a variety of feedback control forms and their tuning methods have been implemented to guarantee the satisfactory performance. This paper presents a scheme of designing a nonlinear PID controller incorporating with a GA (Genetic Algorithm) for the temperature control of a CSTR. The gains of the NPID controller are composed of easily implementable nonlinear functions based on the error and/or the error rate and its parameters are tuned using a GA by minimizing the ITAE (Integral of Absolute Error). Simulation works for reference tracking and disturbance rejecting performances and robustness to parameter changes show the feasibility of the proposed method.


  1. W. H. Ray, Advanced Process Control, McGraw-Hill Book Co., N.Y., 1981.
  2. J. P. Corriou, Process Control: Theory and Applications, Springer-Verlag, London, 2004.
  3. B. W. Bequette, Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation, Prentice Hall, 2002.
  4. U. S. Banu and G. Uma, "Fuzzy gain scheduled pole placement based on state feedback control of CSTR," IET_UK Int. Conf. on Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences (ICTES 2007), India, pp. 63-68, 2007.
  5. U. S. Banu and G. Uma, "Fuzzy gain scheduled CSTR with GA-Based PID," Chem. Eng. Comm., vol. 195, pp. 1213-1226, 2008.
  6. M. A. Nekoui, M. A. Khameneh, and M. H. Kazemi, "Optimal design of PID controller for a CSTR system using particle swarm optimization (PSO)," 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE-PEMC 2010, Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia, pp. T7-63-T7-66, 2010.
  7. C. T. Chen and S. T. Peng, "Learning control of process systems with hard input constraints," J. of Process Control, vol. 9, pp. 151-160, 1999.
  8. L. S. Saoud, F. Rahmoune, V. Tourtchine, and K. Baddari, "An inexpensive embedded electronic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) based on neural networks," 2011 International Conference on Multimedia Technology (ICMT), China, pp. 6233-6237, 2011.
  9. K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund, PID Controllers: Theory, Design and Tuning, ISA Press, 1995.
  10. M. Korkmaz, O. Aydogdu, and H. Dogan, "Design and performance comparison of variable parameter nonlinear PID controller and genetic algorithm based PID controller," Proc. of 2012 IEEE Int. Symp. on Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications (INISTA), pp. 1- 5, 2012.
  11. K. Kianfar, R. Amiri, and A. Bozorgmehr, "Designing the non-linear PID controller for a missile," 2011 First Int. Conf. on Informatics and Computational Intelligence, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 171-175, 2011.
  12. H. Zhang and B. Hu, "The Application of nonlinear PID controller in generator excitation system," Energy Procedia, vol. 17, pp. 202-207, 2012.
  13. J. Chen and B. Lu et al., "A nonlinear PID controller for electro-hydraulic servo system based on PSO algorithm," Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 141, pp. 157-161, 2011.
  14. G. So, M. So, and G. Jin, "EA-based design of a nonlinear PID controller," Proc. of the 37th KOSME Conference, pp. 374-374, Jinhae, Korea, 2013.
  15. G. Jin, Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications, Kyowoo Publishing Co., 2000.