Comparative Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Pine Needle Powders Prepared by Different Drying Methods

  • Chung, Ha-Sook (Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University) ;
  • Lee, Jun Ho (Department of Food Science and Engineering, Daegu University)
  • Received : 2015.04.01
  • Accepted : 2015.06.08
  • Published : 2015.06.30


Systematic study of how different drying methods, namely hot-air drying, vacuum-drying, and freeze-drying, affect color, browning index, degree of rehydration, water solubility, and vitamin C content is critical for utilizing pine needle powders (PNP) as a novel ingredient in functional foods. Samples prepared by vacuum-drying showed a significantly higher $L^*$-value, whereas higher $a^*$- and $b^*$-values were detected in the hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). The browning index was significantly higher in samples prepared by vacuum-drying compared to samples prepared by freeze-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried PNP exhibited a significantly higher degree of rehydration than hot-air dried samples (P<0.05). Water solubilities of freeze-dried and hot-air dried samples were significantly higher than that of vacuum-dried sample (P<0.05). Vitamin C was less destroyed during freeze-drying compared to hot-air or vacuum-drying (P<0.05). Freeze-dried samples displayed a clear porous structure and appeared to have a bigger space, whereas hot-air dried samples showed lower porosity than vacuum and freeze-dried samples.


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