DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Size Distribution Characteristics of Water-soluble Ionic Components in Airborne Particulate Matter in Busan

부산 도심지역 대기중 입자상물질의 크기분포에 따른 수용성 이온성분의 특성

  • Received : 2015.04.07
  • Accepted : 2015.06.25
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate size distribution characteristics of water-soluble ionic components in the airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from an urban area in Busan using a MOUDI cascade impactor from March to October 2010. The inorganic constituents in the fine particles (${\leq}1.8{\mu}m$) predominantly consisted of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and potassium. Sulfate and ammonium concentrations showed a high correlation and similar equivalent concentrations in the fine modes including $0.18{\sim}0.32{\mu}m$, $0.32{\sim}0.56{\mu}m$, and $0.56{\sim}1.0{\mu}m$. This indicates that the main chemical component in the fine particles would be forms of ammonium sulfate such as $(NH_4)_3H(SO_4)_2$, $(NH_4)_2SO_4$, and $(NH_4)HSO_4$. Back trajectory analysis showed that relatively higher concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate in the fine mode, compared to the coarse mode, are caused both by domestic sources and long-range transports originated from China continent. High concentration episodes of PM both in the fine mode and the coarse mode were attributed both by anthropogenic sources, such as ship emissions and traffic emissions, and by natural sources such as seawater (sea salt), respectively.

Keywords

Size distribution;Airborne particulate matter;Water-soluble ionic components;Ammonium sulfate

References

  1. Andreae, M.O., T.W. Andreae, H. Annegarn, J. Beer, H. Cachier, P. le Canut, W. Elbert, W. Maenhaut, I. Salma, F.G. Wienhold, and T. Zenker (1998) Airborne studies of aerosol emission from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol Chemical composition, J. Geophy. Res.-Atmos. 103, 32119-32128. https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD02280
  2. Blado, J.D. and B.J. Turpin (2000) Secondary organic aerosol formation in cloud and for droplets: a literature evaluation of plausibility, Atmos. Environ. 34, 1623-1632. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00392-1
  3. Choi, K.-C., J.H. Park, and K.T. Lim (1994) Characterization of Size distribution of Anion Species in Atmospheric Aerosols, J. Korean. Soc. Atmos. Environ. 10(2), 124-129. (in Korean with English abstract)
  4. Contini, D., D. Cesari, A. Genga, M. Siciliano, P. Ielpo, M.R. Guascito, and M. Conte (2014) Source apportionment of size-segregated atmospheric particles based on the major water-soluble components in Lecce (Italy), Sci. Total Environ. 472, 248-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.127
  5. Cruz, C.N. and S.N. Pandis (1997) A study of the ability of pure secondary organic aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei, Atmos. Environ. 31, 2205-2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00054-X
  6. Donaldson K. and W. MacNee (2001) Potential mechanisms of adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution ($PM_{10}$), Int. J. Hygi. & Environ. Heal., 203:411-415. https://doi.org/10.1078/1438-4639-00059
  7. Dordevic, D., A. Mihajlidi-Zelic, D. Relic, Lj. Ignjatovic, J. Huremovic, A.M. Stortini, and A. Gambaro (2012) Size-segregated mass concentration and water soluble inorganic ions in an urban aerosol of the Central Balkans (Belgrade), Atmos. Environ., 46, 309-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.057
  8. Funasaka, K., M. Sakai, M. Shinya, T. Miyazaki, T. Kamiura, S. Kaneco, K. Ohta, and T. Fujita (2003) Size distribution and characteristics of atmospheric inorganic particles by regional comparative study in Urban Osaka, Japan, Atmos. Environ., 37, 4597-4605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.08.004
  9. Hong, Y.-M., B.K. Lee, K.J. Park, M.H. Kang, Y.R. Jung, D.S. Lee, and M.G. Kim (2002) Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds for three sites of South Korea, Atmos. Environ., 36, 3485-3494. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00289-3
  10. Hu C.-G., J.H. Song, and G.H. Lee (2004) Size Distribution of Water-Soluble Ionic Components in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Jeju City, Korea, J. Environ. Sci., 13(12), 1067-1078. (in Korean with English abstract)
  11. John, W., S.M. Wall, J.L. Ondo, and W. Winklmay (1990) Modes in the size distribution of atmospheric inorganic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 24A(9), 2349-2359.
  12. Jung, J.-H. and Y.J. Han (2008) Study on Characteristics of $PM_{2.5}$ and Its Ionic Constituents in Chuncheon, Korea, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Envrion., 24(6), 682-692. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2008.24.6.682
  13. Kang, C.-M., B.W. Kang, and H.S. Lee (2006) Source identification and trends in concentrations of gaseous and fine particulate principal species in Seoul, South Korea, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., 56(7), 911-921. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464506
  14. Kang, C.-M., H.S. Lee, B.W. Kang, S.K. Lee, and S.W. Young (2004) Chemical characteristics of acidic gas pollutants and $PM_{2.5}$ species during hazy episodes in Seoul, South Korea, Atmos. Environ., 38, 4749-4760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.05.007
  15. Kerminen, V.M., C. Ojanen, T. Pakkanen, R. Hillamo, and M. Merilainen (2002) Low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids in an urban and rural atmosphere, J. Aero. Sci., 31(3), 349-362.
  16. Khoder, M.I. (2002) Atmospheric conversion of sulfur dioxide to particulate sulfate and nitrogen dioxide to particulate nitrate and gaseous nitric acid in an urban area, Chemos. 49, 675-684. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00391-0
  17. Kim, J.-C. (2013) Characteristics of Particle Size Distribution of $PM_{10}$ by Asian Dust, J. Korean Soc. Environ. Anal., 16(4), 266-271. (in Korean with English abstract)
  18. Kleeman, M.J., J.J. Schauer, and G.R. Cass (2000) Size and composition distribution of fine particulate mass emitted from moto vehicles, Environ. Sci. & Tech., 34(7), 1132-1142. https://doi.org/10.1021/es981276y
  19. Ko, H.-J., Y.S. Lee, W.H. Kim, J.M. Song, and C.H. Kang (2014) Chemical Composition Characteristics of Fine Particulate Matter at Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Background Area in Fall, 2012, J. Korean Chem. Soc., 58(3), 267-276. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5012/jkcs.2014.58.3.267
  20. Kunen, S.M., A.L. Lazrus, G.L. Kok, and B.G. Heikes (1983) Aqueous oxidation of SO2 by hydrogen pereoxide, J. Geophy. Res., 88, 3671-3674. https://doi.org/10.1029/JC088iC06p03671
  21. Lee, T.-J. and D.S. Kim (1997) Estimation of Source Contribution for Ambient Particulate Matters in Suwon Area, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ. 13(4), 285-296. (in Korean with English abstract)
  22. Liu, S., M. Hu, S. Slanina, L.Y. He, Y.W. Niu, E. Bruegenmann, T. Gnauk, and H. Hermann (2008) Size distribution and source analysis of ionic compositions of aerosols in polluted periods at Xinken in Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China, Atmos. Environ., 42, 6284-6295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.035
  23. McArdle, J.V. and M.R. Hoffman (1983) Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of aquated sulfur dioxide by hydrogen peroxide at low pH, J. Phy. Chem., 87, 5425-5429. https://doi.org/10.1021/j150644a024
  24. Meng, Z.Y. and J.H. Seinfeld (1994) On the source of the submicrometer droplet mode of urban and regional aerosols, Aero. Sci. & Tech., 20, 253-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/02786829408959681
  25. NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research) (2009) Study on the Characteristics on Physical and Chemical Properties of $PM_{2.5}$ (I). (in Korean with English abstract)
  26. NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research) (2011) 2010 The Annual Report for Operating Result of Air pollution Intensive Monitoring station.
  27. Oh, M.-S., T.J. Lee, and D.S. Kim (2009) Characteristics of Ionic Components in Size-resolved Particulate Matters in Suwon Area, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 25(1), 46-56. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2009.25.1.046
  28. Park, H.-W. and Y.M. Jo (2013) Regulation Standard of Fine Particles and Control Techniques of Emission Sources, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 29(4), 486-503. (in Korean with English abstract) https://doi.org/10.5572/KOSAE.2013.29.4.486
  29. Park, J.-H. and K.C. Choi (1997) Characterization of Chemical Composition and Size Distribution of Atmospheric Aerosols by Low-Pressure Impactor, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 10(1), 475-486. (in Korean with English abstract)
  30. Park J.-Y. and H.J. Lim (2006) Characteristics of Water Soluble Ions in Fine Particles during the Winter and Spring in Daegu, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 22(5), 627-641. (in Korean with English abstract)
  31. Park, S.-S., S.Y. Cho, and S.J. Kim (2010) Chemical Characteristics of Water Soluble Components in Fine Particulate Matter at a Gwangju area, Korean Chem. Eng. Res., 48(1), 20-26. (in Korean with English abstract)
  32. Park, S.-S. and Y.J. Kim (2004) $PM_{2.5}$ particles and size segregated ionic species measured during fall season in three urban sites in Korea, Atmos. Environ., 38(10), 1459-1471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.12.004
  33. Saxena, P., L.M. Hildemann, P.H. McMurry, and J.H. Seinfeld (1995) Organics alter hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric particles, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D9), 18755-18770. https://doi.org/10.1029/95JD01835
  34. Seinfeld, J.H. and S.N. Pandis (2006) Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics from Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., U.S.A.
  35. Shin J.-H., T.J. Lee, and D.S. Kim (1996) A Study on the Size Distribution of Trace Metals Concentrations in the Ambient Aerosols, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 12(1), 67-77. (in Korean with English abstract)
  36. Simpson, R.W. (1992) A statistical analysis of particulate data sets in Brisbane, Australia, Atmos. Environ., 26B(1), 99-105.
  37. Yamasoe, M.A., P. Artaxo, A.H. Miguel, and A.G. Allen (2000) Chemical composition of aerosol particles from direct emissions of vegetation fires in the Amazon Basin: water-soluble species and trace elements, Atmos. Environ., 34, 1641-1653. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00329-5
  38. Yao, X., C.K. Chan, M. Fang, S. Cadle, T. Chan, P. Mulawa, K. He, and B. Ye (2002) The water-soluble ionic composition of $PM_{2.5}$ in Shanghai and Beijing, China, Atmos. Environ., 36, 4223-4234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00342-4
  39. Zhang, L., R. Vet, A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, B. Sukloff, E. Chan, M.D. Moran, and S. Iqbal (2008) Characterization of the size-segregated water-soluble inorganic ions at eight Canadian rural site, Atmos. Chem. & Phy., 8, 7133-7151. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7133-2008
  40. Zhao, Y. and Y. Gao (2008) Mass size distributions of watersoluble inorganic and organic ions in size-segregated aerosols over metropolitan Newark in the US east coast, Atmos. Environ., 42, 4063-4078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.01.032
  41. Zhuang, H., C.K. Chan, M. Fang, and A.S. Wexler (1999) Size Distributions of Particulate Sulfate, Nitrate, and Ammonium at a Coastal Site in Hong Kong. Atmos. Environ., 33, 843-853. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00305-7

Acknowledgement

Grant : 울산 친환경 생태산업단지 사업팀