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Investigation of PM2.5 Pollution Episodes in Gwangju

광주지역 PM2.5의 고농도 오염현상 조사

  • Received : 2015.03.31
  • Accepted : 2015.04.21
  • Published : 2015.06.30

Abstract

24-hr integrated $PM_{2.5}$ measurements were performed between December 2013 and October 2014 at an urban site in Gwangju and the collected samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), ionic species, and elemental species. Objectives of this study were to identify $PM_{2.5}$ pollution episodes, to characterize their chemical components, and to examine their probable origins. Over the course of the study period, average $PM_{2.5}$ concentration was $37.7{\pm}23.6$ $(6.0{\sim}121.5){\mu}g/m^3$. Concentrations of secondary ionic species; $NH_4{^+}$, $NO_3{^-}$, and $SO_4{^{2-}}$ was on average $5.54{\mu}g/m^3$ (0.28~ 20.86), $7.60{\mu}g/m^3$ (0.45~ 33.53), and $9.05{\mu}g/m^3$ (0.50~ 34.98), accounting for 13.7% (4.6~ 22.7), 18.6% (2.9~ 44.8), and 22.9% (4.9~ 55.1) of the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration, respectively. Average OC and EC concentrations were $5.22{\mu}g/m^3$ and $1.54{\mu}g/m^3$, taking possession of 4.6 and 22.2% (as organic mass) of the $PM_{2.5}$, respectively. Frequencies at which 24-hr averaged $PM_{2.5}$ exceeded a 24-hr averaged Korean $PM_{2.5}$ standard of $50{\mu}g/m^3$ (termed as an "episode" in this study) were 30, accounting for 21.3% of total 141 measurements. These pollution episodes were mostly associated with haze phenomenon and weak surface wind speed. It is suggested that secondary formation of aerosol was one important formation mechanism of the episodes. The episodes were associated with enhancements of organic mass, $NO_3{^-}$ and $SO_4{^{2-}}$ in winter, of $NO_3{^-}$ and $SO_4{^{2-}}$ in spring, and of $SO_4{^{2-}}$ in summer. Potential source contribution function results indicate also that $PM_{2.5}$ episodes were likely attributed to local and regional haze pollution transported from northeastern China in winter, to atmospheric processing of local emissions rather than long-range transport of air pollutants in spring, and to the $SO_4{^{2-}}$ driven by photochemistry of $SO_2$ in summer.

Keywords

$PM_{2.5}$ standard;Episode;Secondary formation;Haze;Potential source contribution function

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단