Characteristics of Black Carbon Particles in Ambient Air Using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) in May 2013, Jeju, Korea

SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer)를 이용한 제주도 5월 Black Carbon 특성

  • Received : 2015.03.26
  • Accepted : 2015.06.02
  • Published : 2015.06.30


Single particle soot photometer (SP2) is an advanced instrument capable of real-time measurement of concentration, coating thickness, and size distribution of individual BC particle using laser-induced incandescence. So far, there have been insufficient studies examining the real-time characteristics of BC in Korea. In this study, we examined temporal variations in BC concentration and mass size distribution of BC in volume equivalence diameter at a background site of Aewol, Jeju in May. Average concentration and mass median diameter (MMD) of BC particles measured during the study period (06~ 16 May 2013) were $0.69{\pm}0.48{\mu}g/m^3$ and $196{\pm}17nm$, respectively. The BC concentration measured in Aewol was very similar to that observed in the spring of 2012 in Baengnyeong island, and showed diurnal profiles similar to those in other background areas. MMD of BC ranged from 172 to 222 nm. It was found that the mass size distribution of BC varied depending on the location (ground-based), season, types of air masses, and altitude (aircraft-based).


SP2;Single particle soot photometer;BC;Volume equivalent diameter;MMD


  1. Adams, K., L. Davis, S. Japar, and D. Finley (1990) Real-time, in-situ measurements of atmospheric optical absorption in the visible via photo-acoustic spectroscopy: IV. Visibility degradation and aerosol optical properties in Los Angeles, Atmos. Environ., 24, 605-610.
  2. Bond, T.C., E. Bhardwaj, R. Dong, R. Jogani, S. Jung, C. Roden, D.G. Streets, and N.M. Trautmann (2007) Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles., 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840.
  3. Carmichael, G.R., Y. Zhang, L.L. Chen, M.S. Hong, and H. Ueda (1996) Seasonal variation of aerosol composition at Cheju Island, Korea, Atmos. Environ., 30, 2407-2416.
  4. Crutzen, P. and M. Andreae (1990) Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles, Science., 250, 1669-1678.
  5. DeCarlo, P.F., J.G. Slowik, D.R. Worsnop, P. Davidovits, and J.L. Jimenez (2004) Particle morphology and density characterization by combined mobility and aerodynamic diameter measurements. Part 1: Theory, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 38, 1185-1205.
  6. Draxler, R.R. and G.D. Rolph (2015) HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model access via NOAA ARL READY Website ( NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring., MD.
  7. Eckbreth, A.C. (1977) Effects of laser-modulated particulate incandescence on Raman scattering diagnostics, J. Appl. Phys., 48, 4473-4479.
  8. Gao, R.S., J.P. Schwarz, K.K. Kelly, D.W. Fahey, L.A. Watts, and T.L. Thompson (2007) A novelmethod for estimating light-scattering properties of soot aerosols using a modified single-particle soot photometer, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 41, 125-135.
  9. Gebhart, K., S. Kreidenweis, and W. Malm (2001) Back-trajectory analyses of fine particulate matter measured at Big Bend National Park in the historical database and the 1996 scoping study, Sci. Total Environ., 276, 185-204.
  10. Horvath, H. (1993) Atmospheric light absorption: a review, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 293-317.
  11. Huang, X.F., J.Z. Yu, L.Y. He, and M. Hu (2006) Size distribution characteristics of elemental carbon emitted from Chinese vehicles: results of a tunnel study and atmospheric implications, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 5355-5360.
  12. Huang, X.F., T.L. Sun, L.W. Zeng, G.H. Yu, and S.J. Luan (2012) Black carbon aerosol characterization in a coastal city in South China using a single particle soot photometer, Atmos. Environ., 51, 21-28.
  13. Jung, J.H. and S.S. Park (2008) Characteristics of Black Carbon in $PM_{2.5}$ observed in Gwangju for Year 2008 and Examination of Filter Loading Effect, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 26(4), 392-402. (in Korean with English abstract)
  14. Kondo, Y., L. Sahu, N. Moteki, F. Khan, N. Takegawa, X. Liu, M. Koike, and T. Miyakawa (2011) Consistency and Traceability of Black Carbon Measurements Made by Laser-Induced Incandescence, Thermal-Optical Transmittance, and filter-based Photo-Absorption Technique, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45(2), 295-312.
  15. Lan, Z.J., D.L. Chen, X.A. Li, X.F. Huang, L.Y. He, Y.G. Deng, N. Feng, and M. Hu (2011) Modal characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol size distribution in an urban atmosphere of South China, Atmos. Res., 100, 51e60.
  16. Lau, K.M. and K.M. Kim (2006) Observational relationships between aerosol and Asian monsoon rainfall, and circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L21810, doi:10.1029/2006gl027546.
  17. Lin, M., T. Oki, M. Bengtsson, S. Kanae, T. Holloway, and D.G. Streets (2008) Long-range transport of acidifying substances in EastAsia-PartII: Source- receptor relationships, Atmos. Environ., 39, 5956-5967.
  18. Liu, D., M. Flynn, M. Gysel, A. Targino, I. Crawford, K. Bower, T. Choularton, Z. Juranyi, M. Steinbacher, C. Huglin, J. Curtius, M. Kampus, A. Petzold, E. Weingartner, U. Baltensperger, and H. Coe (2010) Single particle characterization of black carbon aerosols at a tropospheric alpine site in Switzerland, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7389-7407.
  19. Melton, A. (1984) Soot diagnostics based on laser heating, Appl. Opt., 23, 2201-2208.
  20. Mikhailov, E.F., S.S. Vlasenko, I.A. Podgorny, V. Ramanathan, and C.E. Corrigan (2006) Optical properties of soot water drop agglomerates: An experimental study, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D07209, doi:10.1029/2005JD006389.
  21. Moteki, N., Y. Kondo, N. Takegawa, and S. Nakamura (2009) Directional dependence of thermal emission from nonspherical carbon particles, J. Aerosol Sci., 40, 790-801, doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.05.003.
  22. Moteki, N., Y. Kondo, Y. Miyazaki, N. Takegawa, Y. Komazaki, G. Kurata, T. Shirai, D.R. Blake, T. Miyakawa, and M. Koike (2007) Evolution of mixing state of black carbon particles: aircraft measurements over the western Pacific in March 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L11803, doi:10.1029/2006gl028943.
  23. Myhre, G., A. Myhre, and F. Stordal (2001) Historical evolution of radiative forcing of climate, Atmos. Environ., 35, 2361-2373.
  24. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2009) The Characteristics of the Air Pollutants Distribution and Concentration at the Baengnyeong Island (II), No. 11-1480523-000576-10.
  25. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2010) The Characteristics of the Air Pollutants Distribution and Concentration at the Baengnyeong Island (III), No. 11-1480523-000748-01.
  26. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2011) The Characteristics of the Air Pollutants at West inflow regions in the Korean Peninsula (I), No. 11-1480523-000949-01.
  27. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2012) A study on the high PM episodes observed in Seoul metropolitan area (I), No. 11-1480523-001272-01.
  28. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2013) Emission sources and behavior of $PM_{2.5}$ organic Materials (IV), No. 11-1480523-001601-01.
  29. Oh, J., J.S. Park, J.Y. Ahn, J.S. Choi, J.H. Lim, H.J. Kim, J.S. Han, Y.D. Hong, and G.W. Lee (2014) A study on the Behavior of the Black Carbon at Baengnyeong Island of Korea Peninsular, J. kSUE., 14(2), 67-76. (in Korean with English abstract)
  30. Park, S.S., J.H. Jung, S.Y. Cho, and S.J. Kim (2009) Compensation of aethalometer black carbon data observed at a Gwangju site, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 25(6), 571-578. (in Korean with English abstract)
  31. Park, S.S., J.Y. Hur, S.Y. Cho, S.J. Kim, and Y.J. Kim (2009) Characteristics of Organic Carbon Species in Atmospheric Aerosol Particle at a Gwangju Area During Summer and Winter, J. Korean Soc. Atmos. Environ., 23(6), 675-688. (in Korean with English abstract)
  32. Schwarz, J.P., H. Stark, J.R. Spackman, T.B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, W.H. Swartz, R.S. Gao, L.A. Watts, and D.W. Fahey (2009) Heating rates and surface dimming due to black carbon aerosol absorption associated with a major US city, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15807, doi:10.1029/2009gl039213.
  33. Schwarz, J.P., R.S. Gao, J.R. Spackman, L.A. Watts, D.S. Thomson, D.W. Fahey, T.B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J.S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G.J. Frost, T. Baynard, D.A. Lack, J.A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L.A. Del Negro (2008a) Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L13810, doi:10.1029/2008gl033968.
  34. Schwarz, J.P., J.R. Spackman, D.W. Fahey, R.S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L.A. Watts, D.S. Thomson, D.A. Lack, L. Pfister, M.J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J.C. Wilson, and J.M. Reeves (2008b) Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 113, D03203, doi:10.1029/2007jd009042.
  35. Schwarz, J.P., R.S. Gao, D.W. Fahey, D.S. Thomson, L.A. Watts, J.C. Wilson, J.M. Reeves, M. Darbeheshti, D.G. Baumgardner, G.L. Kok, S.H. Chung, M. Schulz, J. Hendricks, A. Lauer, B. Karcher, J.G. Slowik, K.H. Rosenlof, T.L. Thompson, A.O. Langford, M. Loewenstein, and K.C. Aikin (2006) Single particle measurements of midlatitude black carbon and lightscattering aerosols from the boundary layer to the lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 111, D16207, doi:10.1029/2006jd007076.
  36. Shiraiwa, M., Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Takegawa, L.K. Sahu, A. Takami, S. Hatakeyama, S. Yonemura, and D.R. Blake (2008) Radiative impact of mixing state of black carbon aerosol in Asian outflow, Geophys. Res. Lett., 113, D24210, doi:10.1029/2008jd010546.
  37. Stephens, M., N. Turner, and S.B. Jon (2003) Particle identification by laser-induced incandescence in a soildstate laser cavity, Appl. Opt., 42(19), 3726-3736.
  38. Menon, S., J. Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y.F. Luo (2002) Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India, Science., 297, 2250-2253.

Cited by

  1. A Study of Black Carbon Measurement in Metropolitan Area and Suburban Area of the Korean Peninsula Performed during Pre KORea-US Air Quality Study (KORUS-AQ) Campaign vol.31, pp.5, 2015,