- Volume 31 Issue 2
In recent years, the use of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum has been increasing in the production of optical glasses, batteries, alloys, etc. However, a hazard assessment has not been performed to determine the degree of toxicity of lanthanum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the toxicity of both nano- and micro-sized lanthanum oxide in cultured cells and rats. After identifying the size and the morphology of lanthanum oxides, the toxicity of two different sized lanthanum oxides was compared in cultured RAW264.7 cells and A549 cells. The toxicity of the lanthanum oxides was also analyzed using rats. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations of micro-
Lanthanum oxide;Nano;Particle size;Toxicity
- Heuck, F. and Hoschek, R. (1968) Cer-pneumoconiosis. Am. J. Roentgenol., 104, 780-783.
- Rim, K.T., Koo, K.H. and Park, J.S. (2013) Toxicological evaluations of rare earths and their health impacts to workers: a literature review. Saf. Health Work, 4, 12-26. https://doi.org/10.5491/SHAW.2013.4.1.12
- British Geological Survey. (2011) Rare Earth Element. National Environment Research Council, Nottingham, pp. 1-53.
- Geraets, L., Oomen, A.G., Schroeter, J.D., Coleman, V.A. and Cassee, F.R. (2012) Tissue distribution of inhaled micro- and nano-sized cerium oxide particles in rats: results from a 28-day exposure study. Toxicol. Sci., 127, 463-473. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfs113
- Gosens, I., Mathijssen, L.E., Bokkers, B.G., Muijser, H. and Cassee, F.R. (2014) Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats. Nanotoxicology, 8, 643-653. https://doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2013.815814
- Keller, J., Wihlleben, W., Ma-Hock, L., Strauss, V., Groters, S., Kuttler, K., Weinch, K., Herden, C., Oberdorster, G., von Ravenzwaay, B. and Landsiedel, R. (2014) Time course of lung retention and toxicity of inhaled particles: Short-term exposure to nano-Ceria. Arch. Toxicol., 88, 2033-2059. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-014-1349-9
- Toya, T., Takata, A., Okaki, N., Takaya, M., Serita, F., Yoshida, K. and Kohyama, N. (2010) Pulmonary toxicity induced by intratracheal instillation of coarse and fine particles of cerium dioxide in male rats. Ind. Health, 48, 3-11. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.48.3
- Palmer, R.J., Butenhoff, J.L. and Stevens, J.B. (1987) Cytotoxicity of the rare earth metals cerium, lanthanum, and neodymium in vitro: Comparisons with cadmium in a pulmonary macrophage primary culture system. Environ. Res., 43, 142-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-9351(87)80066-X
- Cheng, J., Li, N., Cai, J., Cheng, Z., Hu, R., Zhang, Q., Wan, F., Sun, Q., Gui, S., Sang, X., Wang, L. and Hong F. (2012) Organ histopathological changes and its function damage in mice following long-term exposure to lanthanides chloride. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 145, 361-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9193-8
- Cheng, J., Cheng, Z., Hu, R., Cui, Y., Cai, J., Li, N., Gui, S., Sang, X., Sun, Q., Wang, L. and Hong, F. (2014) Immune dysfunction and liver damage of mice following exposure to lanthanoids. Environ. Toxicol., 29, 64-73. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.20773
- Takaya, M., Toya, T., Takata, A., Otaki, N., Yoshida, K. and Kohyama, N. (2005) Biological effects of rare earth oxides to respiratory organs. J. Aerosol Res., 20, 207-212.
- Zhao, H., Cheng, Z., Hu, R., Chen, J., Hong, M., Zhou, M., Gong, X., Wang, L. and Hong, F. (2011) Oxidative injury in the brain of mice caused by lanthanoid. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 142, 174-189. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8759-1
- OECD. (2010) Series on the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, No. 27. List of manufactured nanomaterials and list of endpoints for phase one of the sponsorship programme for the testing of manufactured nanomaterials: revision, OECD, Paris, pp. 13.
- Li, X.Y., Brown, D., Smith, S., MacNee, W. and Donaldson, K. (1999) Short-term inflammatory responses following intratracheal instillation of fine and ultrafine carbon black in rats. Inhalation Toxicol., 11, 709-731. https://doi.org/10.1080/089583799196826
- Sager, T.M. and Castranova, V. (2009) Surface area of particle administered versus mass in determining the pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine and fine carbon black: comparison to ultrafine titanium dioxide. Part. Fibre Toxicol., 6, 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-6-15
- Hong, J., Pan, X., Zhao, X., Yu, X., Sang, X., Sheng, L., Wang, X., Gui, S., Sun, Q., Wang, L. and Hong, F. (2015) Molecular mechanism of oxidative damage of lung in mice following exposure to lanthanum chloride. Environ. Toxicol., 30, 357-365. https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21913
- Differential pulmonary effects of CoO and La2O3 metal oxide nanoparticle responses during aerosolized inhalation in mice vol.13, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12989-016-0155-3
- Evaluation of Rare Earths viewed from the Occupational Health vol.26, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.15269/JKSOEH.2016.26.3.237
- Twenty-eight-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of nano-sized lanthanum oxide in male sprague-dawley rats vol.32, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.22319
- Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats vol.33, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2017.33.3.239
- NP exposure: water uptake, aquaporin gene expression and signal transduction vol.4, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1039/C6EN00487C
- Overview on biological implications of metal oxide nanoparticle exposure to human alveolar A549 cell line pp.1743-5404, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2017.1366574
- Cationic Substitutions in Hydroxyapatite: Current Status of the Derived Biofunctional Effects and Their In Vitro Interrogation Methods vol.11, pp.11, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112081