Struvite Crystallization of Anaerobic Digestive Fluid of Swine Manure Containing Highly Concentrated Nitrogen

  • Lee, Eun Young (Department of Environmental Engineering, The University of Suwon) ;
  • Oh, Min Hwan (Department of Environmental Engineering, The University of Suwon) ;
  • Yang, Seung-Hak (Animal Environment Division, National Institute of animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Yoon, Tae Han (Dodram Environment Research Center Co. Ltd.)
  • Received : 2014.09.02
  • Accepted : 2014.10.25
  • Published : 2015.07.01


In this study, the optimal operation factors for struvite crystallization for removing and recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from anaerobic digestive fluid of swine manure containing highly concentrated nitrogen was determined. Every experiment for the struvite crystallization reaction was conducted by placing 1,000 mL of digestion fluid in a 2,000 mL Erlenmeyer flask at various temperatures, pH, and mixing speed. Except for special circumstances, the digestion fluid was centrifuged (10,000 rpm, 10 min) and then the supernatant was used for the experiment at room temperature and 100 rpm. The optimal mole ratio of $PO_4{^{3-}}:Mg^{2+}$ was 1:1.5, and the pH effect ranging from 9 to 11 was similar, when mixed for 1 hour. Under this condition, the removal efficiency of $NH_4{^+}-N$ and $PO_4{^{3-}}-P$ was 40% and 88.6%, respectively. X-shaped crystal was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, struvite crystal structure was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis.


Struvite;Anaerobic Digestive Fluid;Swine Manure


Supported by : Ministry of Environment


  1. Wierzbicki, A., J. D. Sallis, E. D. Stevens, M. Smith, and C. S. Sikes. 1997. Crystal growth and molecular modeling studies of inhibition of struvite by phosphocitrate. Calcif. Tissue Int. 61:216-222.
  2. Willem, S., K. Bram, P. Berend, R. Wim, T. Hardy, K. Ferdinand, and L. Lijimbach. 2001. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry. Second International Conference on the Phosphorus from Sewage and Animal Wastes. March 12-13, 2001; Noordwikerhout, The Netherlands.
  3. Ye, Z. L., S. H. Chen, M. Lu, J. W. Shi, L. F. Lin, and S. M. Wang. 2011. Recovering phosphorus as struvite from the digested swine manure with bittern as a magnesium source. Water Sci. Technol. 64:334-340.
  4. Yetilmezsoy, K. and Z. S. Zengin. 2009. Recovery of ammonium nitrogen from the effluent of UASB treating poultry manure wastewater by MAP precipitation as a slow release fertilizer. J. Hazard. Mater. 166:260-269.
  5. Liang, X. Q., Y. X. Chen, H. Li, G. M. Tian, W. Z. Ni, M. M. He, and Z. J. Zhang. 2007. Modeling transport and fate of nitrogen from urea applied to a near-trench paddy field. Environ. Pollut. 150:313-320.
  6. Liu, Y. H., J. H. Kwag, J. H. Kim, and C. S. Ra. 2011a. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus by struvite crystallization from swine wastewater. Desalination 277:364-369.
  7. Liu, Y. H., M. M. Rahman, J. H. Kwag, J. H. Kim, and C. S. Ra. 2011b. Eco-friendly production of maize using struvite recovered from swine wastewater as a sustainable fertilizer source. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1699-1705.
  8. Liu, Y. H., S. Kumar, J. H. Kwag, J. H. Kim, and C. S. Ra. 2011c. Recycle of electrolytically dissolved struvite as an alternative to enhance phosphate and nitrogen recovery from swine wastewater. J. Hazard. Mater. 195:175-181.
  9. Mariska, R., M. Max, H. Rainer, and G. Willi. 2010. Struvite precipitation from urine - Influencing factors on particle size. Water Res. 44:2038-2046.
  10. Munch, E. and K. Barr. 2001. Controlled struvite crystallization for removing phosphorus from anaerobic digester sidestreams. Water Res. 35:151-159.
  11. Moriyama, K., T. Kojima, Y. Minawa, S. Matsumoto, and K. Nakamachi. 2001. Development of antificial seed crystal for crystallization of calcium phosphate. Second International Conference on the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage and Animal Wastes. March 12-13, 2001; Noordwikerhout, The Netherlands.
  12. Rahman, M. M., Y. H. Liu, J. H. Kwag, and C. S. Ra. 2011. Recovery of struvite from animal wastewater and its nutrient leaching loss in soil. J. Hazard. Mater. 186:2026-2030.
  13. Ren, J., N. Li, L. Zhao, and N. Ren. 2014. Enhanced adsorption of phosphate by loading nanosized ferric oxyhydroxide on anion resin. Front. Environ. Sci. Eng. 84:531-538.
  14. Schulze-Rettmer, R. 1991. The simultaneous chemical precipitation of ammonium and phosphate in the form of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate. Water Sci. Technol. 23:659-667.
  15. Schulze-Rettmer, R., P. Metzen, A. Alfter, and B. Simbach. 2001. MAP precipitation for recovering nutrients from manure. Second International Conference on the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage and Animal Wastes. March 12-13, 2001; Noordwikerhout, The Netherlands.
  16. Suzuki, K., Y. Tanaka, K. Kuroda, D. Hanajima, Y. Fukumoto, T. Yasuda, and M. Waki. 2007. Removal and recovery of phosphorous from swine wastewater by demonstration crystallization reactor and struvite accumulation device. Bioresour. Technol. 98:1573-1578.
  17. Ueno, Y. and M. Fujii. 2001. 3 year operating selling recovered struvite from full-scale plant. Second International Conference on the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage and Animal Wastes. March 12-13, 2001; Noordwikerhout, The Netherlands.
  18. Weon, S. Y., S. K. Park, and S. I. Lee. 2009. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus using struvite crystallization. Environ. Eng. Res. 22:599-607.
  19. Battistoni, P., G. Fava, P. Pava, A. Musacco, and F. Cecchi. 1997. Phosphate removal in anaerobic liquors by struvite crystallization without addition of chemicals: Preliminary results. Water Res. 31:2925-2929.
  20. Capdevielle, A., E. Sykorova, B. Biscans, F. Beline, and ML. Daumer. 2013. Optimization of struvite precipitarion in synthetic biologically treated swine wastewater-Determination of the optimal process parameters. J. Hazard. Mater. 244-245:357-369.
  21. Cho, J. H., J. E. Lee, and C. S. Ra. 2009. Microwave irradiation as a way to reutilize the recovered struvite slurry and to enhance system performance. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Korea) 51:337-342.
  22. Choo, Y. D., K. Y. Kim, H. D. Ryu, and S. I. Lee. 2011. Treatment of N, P of auto-thermal thermophillic aerobic digestion fluid with struvite crystallization. J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Engineers. 33:783-789.
  23. Chu, H., Y. Hosen and K. Yagi. 2007. NO, $N_2O$, $CH_4$, and $CO_2$ fluxes in winter barley field of Japanese Andisol as affected by N fertilizer management. Soil Biol. Biochem. 39:330-339.
  24. Dorozhkin, S. V. 2010. Amorphous calcium (ortho)phosphates. Acta Biomater. 6:4457-4475.
  25. Doyle, J. D. and S. A. Parsons. 2002. Struvite formation, control and recovery. Water Res. 36:3925-3940.
  26. Frank, B. and L. Mark. 2009. Sewage treatment and methods for phosphate recovery in BCFS process. Second International Conference on the Recovery of Phosphorus from Sewage and Animal Wastes. March 12-13, 2009; Noordwikerhout, The Netherlands.
  27. Hallett, J. 2002. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  28. Hutnik, N., B. Wierzbowska, K. Piotrowski, and A. Matynia. 2013. Continuous reaction crystallization of struvite from solution containing phosphate(V) and nitrate(V) ions. Online J. Sci. Technol. 3:58-66.
  29. Jo, W. S., S. J. Yoon, and C. S. Ra. 2003. Recovery of N and P resources from animal wastewater by struvite crystallization. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 45:857-884.
  30. Kim, B. U., W. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, and J. M. Rim. 2004. Ammonium nitrogen removal from slurry-type swine wastewater by pretreatment using struvite crystallization for nitrogen control of anaerobic digestion. Water Sci. Technol. 49:215-222.
  31. Kim, J. O., J. T. Jung, and H. K. Kim. 2006. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in anaerobic fermentation supernatant by struvite crystallization. J. Korea. Geo. Environ. Soc. 7:5-12.
  32. Lee, J. E., M. M. Rahman, and C. S. Ra. 2009. Does effects of Mg and PO4 sources on the composting of swine manure. J. Hazard. Mater. 169:801-809.
  33. Lee, J. E., J. H. Kwag, and C. S. Ra. 2010. Influence of compost recycling and magnesium supplement on physical and chemical traits of animal manure compost. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Korea) 52:513-519.
  34. Abbona, F. and R. Boistelle. 1985. Nucleation of struvite: single crystals and agglomerates. Cryst. Res. Technol. 20:133-140.

Cited by

  1. Development of combined plant of biogas and bio solid-refuse-fuel from swine manure slurry pp.1611-8227, 2017,
  2. Impact of supersaturation ratio on phosphorus recovery from synthetic anaerobic digester supernatant through a struvite crystallization fluidized bed reactor pp.1479-487X, 2018,