Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

  • Jiang, Hongqin (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, Zhenzhen (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Ma, Yong (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Qu, Yanghua (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Lu, Xiaonan (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Luo, Hailing (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2014.11.20
  • Accepted : 2015.02.15
  • Published : 2015.07.01


Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.


Lycopene;Plasma;Lipid Profile;Antioxidant Enzymes;Malondialdehyde;Lamb


Supported by : China Agricultural Ministry


  1. Agarwal, A. and A. V. Rao. 2000. Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic diseases. Can. Med. Assoc. J. 163:739-744.
  2. Aksu, D. S., T. Aksu, B. Ozsoy, and E. Baytok. 2010. The effects of replacing inorganic with a lower level of organically complexed minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) in broiler diets on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 23:1066-1072.
  3. Amarenco, P., L. B. Goldstein, M. Szarek, H. Sillesen, A. E. Rudolph, A. Callahan, M. Hennerici, L. Simunovic, J. A. Zivin, and K. M. A. Welch. 2007. Effects of intense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial. Stroke 38:3198-3204.
  4. Amarenco, P., J. Labreuche, and P. J. Touboul. 2008. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and risk of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: A systematic review. Atherosclerosis 196:489-496.
  5. AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
  6. Arab, L. and S. Steck. 2000. Lycopene and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71:1691S-1695S.
  7. Atish, P. and K. Anil. 2013. Lycopene protects against memory impairment and mito-oxidative damage induced by colchicine in rats: An evidence of nitric oxide signaling. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 721:373-381.
  8. Aydin, S., S. S. Palabiyik, P. Erkekoqlu, G. Sahin, N. Basaran, and B. K. Giray. 2013. The carotenoid lycopene protects rats against DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A. Toxicon 73:96-103.
  9. Bohm, F., J. H. Trinkler, and T. G. Truscott. 1995. Carotenoids protect against cell membrane damage by the nitrogen dioxide radical. Nat. Med. 1:98-99.
  10. Bollengier-Lee, S., M. A. Mitchell, D. B. Utomo, P. E. V. Williams, and C. C. Whitehead. 1998. Influence of high dietary vitamin E supplementation on egg production and plasma characteristics in hens subjected to heat stress. Br. Poult. Sci. 39:106-112.
  11. Breinholt, V., S. T. Lauridsen, B. Daneshvar, and J. Jakobsen. 2000. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drugmetabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat. Cancer Lett. 154:201-210.
  12. Calvo, M. M., M. L. Garcia, and M. D. Selgas. 2008. Dry fermented sausages enriched with lycopene from tomato peel. Meat Sci. 80:167-172.
  13. Chauhan, S. S., P. Celi, B. J. Leury, I. J. Clarke, and F. R. Dunshea. 2014. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 92:3364-3374.
  14. Di-Mascio, P., S. Kaiser, and H. Sies. 1989. Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 274:532-538.
  15. Fuhrman, B., A. Elis, and M. Aviram. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic effect of lycopene and $\beta$-carotene is related to suppression of cholesterol synthesis and augmentation of LDL receptor activity in macrophages. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 233:658-662.
  16. Jain, C. K., S. Agarwal, and A. V. Rao. 1999. The effect of dietary lycopene on bioavailability, tissue distribution, in vivo antioxidant properties and colonic preneoplasia in rats. Nutr. Res. 19:1383-1391.
  17. Luo, C. and X. G. Wu. 2011. Lycopene enhances antioxidant enzyme activities and immunity function in N-Methyl-N'- nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastric cancer rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12:3340-3351.
  18. Marai, I. F. M., A. A. EI-Darawany, A. Fadiel, and M. A. M. Abdel-Hafez. 2007. Physiological traits as affected by heat stress in sheep-A review. Small Rumin. Res. 71:1-12.
  19. Mujahid, A., Y. Yoshiki, Y. Akiba, and M. Toyomizu. 2005. Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress. Poult. Sci. 84:307-314.
  20. Napolitano, M., C. De Pascale, C. Wheeler-Jones, K. M. Botham, and E. Bravo. 2007. Effects of lycopene on the induction of foam cell formation by modified LDL. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metabol. 293:E1820-1827.
  21. Nieto, G., P. Diaz, S. Banon, and M. D. Garrido. 2010. Dietary administration of ewe diets with a distillate from rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): Influence on lamb meat quality. Meat Sci. 84:23-29.
  22. Nowak, R., R. H. Porter, D. Blache, and C. M. Dwyer. 2008. Behaviour and the welfare of sheep. Anim. Welf. 6:81-134.
  23. Ortuno, J., R. Serrano, M. J. Jordan, and S. Banon. 2014. Shelf life of meat from lambs given essential oil-free rosemary extract containing carnosic acid plus carnosol at 200 or 400 mg $kg^{-1}$. Meat Sci. 96:1452-1459.
  24. Oshima, S., F. Ojima, H. Sakamoto, Y. Ishiguro, and J. Terao. 1996. Supplementation with carotenoids inhibits singlet oxygenmediated oxidation of human plasma low-density lipoprotein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:2306-2309.
  25. Rao, A. V. and S. Agarwal. 1999. Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: A review. Nutr. Res. 19:305-323.
  26. Ried, K. and P. Fakler. 2011. Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials. Maturitas 68:299-310.
  27. Rissanen, T. 2006. Lycopene and cardiovascular disease. In: Tomatoes, Lycopene and Human Health (Ed. A. V. Rao). Caledonian Science Press, Stranraer, Scotland. pp. 141-152.
  28. Sahin, K., H. Yazlak, C. Orhan, M. Tuzcu, F. Akdemir, and N. Sahin. 2014. The effect of lycopene on antioxidant status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under high stocking density. Aquaculture 418-419:132-138.
  29. Sahin, K., M. Onderci, N. Sahin, M. F. Gursu, F. Khachik, and O. Kucuk. 2006a. Effects of lycopene supplementation on antioxidant status, oxidative stress, performance and carcass characteristics in heat-stressed Japanese quail. J. Therm. Biol. 31:307-312.
  30. Sahin, K., C. Orhan, F. Akdemir, M. Tuzcu, S. Ali, and N. Sahin. 2011. Tomato powder supplementation activates Nrf-2 via ERK/Akt signaling pathway and attenuates heat stress-related responses in quails. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 165:230-237.
  31. Sahin, N., C. Orhan, M. Tuzcu, K. Sahin, and O. Kucuk. 2008. The Effects of tomato powder supplementation on performance and lipid peroxidation in quail. Poult. Sci. 87:276-283.
  32. Sahin, N., K. Sahin, M. Onderci, M. Karatepe, M. O. Smith, and O. Kucuk. 2006b. Effects of dietary lycopene and vitamin E on egg production, antioxidant status and cholesterol levels in Japanese quail. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 19:224-230.
  33. Sen, A. R., A. Santra, and S. A. Karim. 2006. Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on carcass and meat quality of high concentrate fed lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 65:122-127.
  34. Seven, I., T. Aksu, and P. T. Seven. 2010. The effects of propolis on biochemical parameters and activity of antioxidant enzymes in broilers exposed to lead-induced oxidative stress. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 23:1482-1489.
  35. Sgorlon, S., G. Stradaioli, D. Zanin, and B. Stefanon. 2006. Biochemical and molecular responses to antioxidant supplementation in sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 64:143-151.
  36. Silaste, M. L., G. Alfthan, A. Aro, Y. A. Kesaniemi, and S. Horkko. 2007. Tomato juice decreases LDL cholesterol levels and increases LDL resistance to oxidation. Br. J. Nutr. 98:1251-1258.
  37. Upaganlawar, A. B. and R. Balaraman. 2012. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin E in combination with lycopene on lipid Profile, lipid metabolizing enzymes and infarction size in myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol. Pharmacologia 3:215-220.
  38. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  39. Wang, L., M. X. Gong, H. Nishida, C. Shirakawa, S. Sato, and T. Konishi. 2007. Psychological Stress-induced oxidative stress as a model of sub-healthy condition and the effect of TCM. Evid Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 4:195-202.

Cited by

  1. and its toxins (TeA, AOH and AME) vol.50, pp.7-8, 2017,
  2. Xanthophylls increased HDLC level and nuclear factor PPARγ, RXRγ and RARα expression in hens and chicks pp.09312439, 2017,
  3. Dietary lycopene powder improves meat oxidative stability in Hu lambs pp.00225142, 2018,
  4. Lycopene: Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects toward Bisphenol A-Induced Toxicity in Female Wistar Rats vol.2018, pp.1942-0994, 2018,
  5. Plant Food By-Products as Feed: Characteristics, Possibilities, Environmental Benefits, and Negative Sides pp.1525-6103, 2019,
  6. Effects of lycopene and tomato paste on oxidative stability and fatty acid composition of fresh belly meat in finishing pigs pp.1828-051X, 2019,