- Volume 28 Issue 7
DOI QR Code
Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Pregnancy Rate of Murrah Buffaloes under Subtropical Climate
- Dash, Soumya (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
- Chakravarty, A.K. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
- Sah, V. (Division of Animal Genetics, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
- Jamuna, V. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
- Behera, R. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
- Kashyap, N. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
- Deshmukh, B. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute)
- Received : 2014.10.22
- Accepted : 2015.01.26
- Published : 2015.07.01
Heat stress has adverse effects on fertility of dairy animals. Decline in fertility is linearly associated with an increase in combination of both temperature and humidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature humidity index (THI) and the pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes in a subtropical climate. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors viz., sire, parity, period of calving and age group at first calving were found non-significant on pregnancy rate. The effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001) on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes calved for first time and overall pregnancy rate. The threshold THI affecting the pregnancy rate was identified as THI 75. The months from October to March showed THI<75 and considered as non heat stress zone (NHSZ), while months from April to September were determined as heat stress zone (HSZ) with
- Abayawansa, W. D., S. Prabhakar, A. K. Singh, and P. S. Brar. 2011. Effect of climatic changes on reproductive performance of Murrah buffaloes in Punjab: A retrospective analysis. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 81:334-339.
- Amundson, J. L., T. L. Mader, R. J. Rasby, and Q. S. Hu. 2006. Environmental effects on pregnancy rate in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3415-3420. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-611
- Armstrong, D. V. 1994. Heat stress interaction with shade and cooling. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2044-2050. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77149-6
- Bahga, C. S. and P. C. Gangwar. 1988. Seasonal variations in plasma hormones and reproductive efficiency in early postpartum buffalo. Theriogenology 30:1209-1223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(88)90297-X
- Bianca, W. 1962. Relative importance of dry- and wet-bulb temperatures in causing heat stress in cattle. Nature 195:251-252. https://doi.org/10.1038/195251a0
- Buffington, D., A. Collazo-Arochu, G. H. Canton, D. Pritt, W. W. Thatcher, and R. J. Collier. 1981. Black globe-humidity index (BGHI) as comfort equation for dairy cows. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. 24:711-714. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.34325
Burrow, H. M. 2012. Importance of adaptation and genotype
$\times$environment interactions in tropical beef breeding systems. Animal 6:729-740. https://doi.org/10.1017/S175173111200002X
- Garcia-Ispierto, I., F. Lopez-Gatius, G. Bech-Sabat, P. Santolaria, J. L. Yaniz, C. Nogareda, F. De Rensis, and M. Lopez-Bejar. 2007. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain. Theriogenology 67:1379-1385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.02.009
- Harvey, W. R. 1990. User's Guide for LSMLMW. PC-2 Version, mixed model least squares and maximum likelihood computer programme, Mimeograph. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH, USA.
- Nabenishi, H., H. Ohta, T. Nishimoto, T. Morita, K. Ashizawa, and Y. Tsuzuki. 2011. Effect of the temperature-humidity Index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan. J. Reprod. Dev. 57:450-456. https://doi.org/10.1262/jrd.10-135T
- Jensen, M. E., R. D. Burman, and R. G. Allen. 1990. Evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements. ASCEManuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. 70. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY, USA.
- Kaur, H. and S. P. Arora. 1984. Annual pattern of plasma progesterone in normal cycling buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different levels of nutrition. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 7:323-332. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4320(84)90017-4
- Madan, M. L. and B. S. Prakash. 2007. Reproductive endocrinology and biotechnology applications among buffaloes. Soc. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 64:261-281.
- Mader, T. L., M. S. Davis, and T. Brown-Brandl. 2006. Environmental factors influencing heat stress in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:712-719. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.843712x
- Marai, I. F. M., and A. A. M. Haeeb. 2010. Buffalo's biological functions as affected by heat stress - A review. Livest. Sci. 127:89-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.08.001
- Marai, I. F. M., A. A. El-Darawany, A. Fadiel, and M. A. M. Abdel-Hafez. 2008. Reproductive performance traits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation in sheep - A review. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst. 8:209-234.
- McGowan, M. R., D. G. Mayer, W. Tranter, M. Shaw, C. Smith, and T. M. Davison. 1996. Relationship between temperature humidity index and conception efficiency of dairy cattle in Queensland. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 21:454.
- Mellado, M., P. Romero, J. E. Garcia, F. G. Veliz, and J. R. Arevalo. 2010. The effects of ambient temperature and humidity on pregnancy rate in Beefmaster cows in a subtropical environment of Mexico. Livest. Sci. 131:149-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.03.009
- Morton, J. M., W. P. Tranter, D. G. Mayer, and N. N. Jonsson. 2007. Effects of environmental heat on conception rates in lactating dairy cows: Critical periods of exposure. J. Dairy Sci. 90:2271-2278. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-574
- Oseni, S., I. Misztal, and S. Tsuruta. 2005. Genetic parameters for pregnancy rate in Holstein cattle under seasonal heat stress. Nigerian J. Genet. 19:43-57.
- Palta, P., S. Mondal, B. S. Prakash, and M. L. Madan. 1997. Peripheral inhibin levels in relation to climatic variations and stage of estrous cycle in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology 47:989-995. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(97)00055-1
- Parmar, A. P. and V. M. Mehta. 1994. Seasonal endocrine changes in steroid hormones of developing ovarian follicles in Surti buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 64:111-113.
- Patil, C. S., A. K. Chakravarty, A. Singh, V. Kumar, V. Jamuna, and V. Vohra. 2014. Development of a predictive model for daughter pregnancy rate and standardization of voluntary waiting period in Murrah buffalo. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 46:279-284 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0486-0
- Ravagnolo, O. and I. Misztal. 2002. Effect of heat stress on nonreturn rate in Holsteins: fixed-model analyses. J. Dairy Sci. 85:3101-3106. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74397-X
- Roenfeldt, S. 1998. You can't afford to ignore heat stress. Dairy Manage. 35:6-12.
- SAS Institute 1996. Statistics, Version 9.2. SAS Institute. Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
- Singh, R. and A. S. Nanda. 1993. Environmental variables governing seasonality in buffalo breeding. J. Anim. Sci. 71(Suppl.):119. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.711119x
- Thom, E. C. 1959. The discomfort index. Weatherwise 12:57-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/00431672.1959.9926960
- Van Raden, P. M., A. H. Sandres, M. E. Tooker, R. H. Miller, H. D. Norman, M. T. Kuhn, and G. R. Wiggan. 2004. Development of a National genetic evaluation for cow fertility. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2285-2292. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)70049-1
- Yousef, M. K. 1985. Stress physiology in livestock. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
- Effect of heat stress on reproductive performances of dairy cattle and buffaloes: A review vol.9, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2016.235-244