Influence of Temperature and Humidity on Pregnancy Rate of Murrah Buffaloes under Subtropical Climate

  • Dash, Soumya (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Chakravarty, A.K. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Sah, V. (Division of Animal Genetics, Indian Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Jamuna, V. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Behera, R. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Kashyap, N. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Deshmukh, B. (Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute)
  • Received : 2014.10.22
  • Accepted : 2015.01.26
  • Published : 2015.07.01


Heat stress has adverse effects on fertility of dairy animals. Decline in fertility is linearly associated with an increase in combination of both temperature and humidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between temperature humidity index (THI) and the pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes in a subtropical climate. The effects of genetic and non-genetic factors viz., sire, parity, period of calving and age group at first calving were found non-significant on pregnancy rate. The effect of THI was found significant (p<0.001) on pregnancy rate of Murrah buffaloes calved for first time and overall pregnancy rate. The threshold THI affecting the pregnancy rate was identified as THI 75. The months from October to March showed THI<75 and considered as non heat stress zone (NHSZ), while months from April to September were determined as heat stress zone (HSZ) with $THI{\geq}75$. The lowest overall pregnancy rate (0.25) was obtained in July with THI 80.9, while the highest overall pregnancy rate (0.59) was found in November with THI 66.1. May and June were identified as critical heat stress zone (CHSZ) within the HSZ with maximum decline (-7%) in pregnancy rate with per unit increase in THI. The highest overall pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.45 in NHSZ with THI value 56.7 to 73.2. The pregnancy rate was found to have declined to 0.28 in HSZ with THI 73.5 to 83.7. However, the lowest pregnancy rate was estimated as 0.27 in CHSZ with THI value 80.3 to 81.6.


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