Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

  • Kim, J. ;
  • Seo, J. ;
  • Kim, W. ;
  • Yun, H.M. ;
  • Kim, S.C. ;
  • Jang, Y. ;
  • Jang, K. ;
  • Kim, K. ;
  • Kim, B. ;
  • Park, S. ;
  • Park, I. ;
  • Kim, M.K. ;
  • Seo, K.S. ;
  • Kim, H.B. ;
  • Kim, I.H. ;
  • Seo, S. ;
  • Song, M.
  • Received : 2014.11.28
  • Accepted : 2015.03.14
  • Published : 2015.08.01


This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows ($200{\pm}12kg$ of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05) and lost less BW (-6.85 vs -8.54 kg; p<0.05) and backfat depth (-0.42 vs -0.71 mm; p<0.05) than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs $11.82{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs $9.80{\times}10^3/{\mu}L$; p<0.05) on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers to lactation diet based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and WBC changes of lactating sows.


Diarrhea;Lactating Sows;Nutrient Digestibility;Palm Kernel Expellers;Performance;White Blood Cells


  1. Gordon-Smith, T. 2009. Structure and function of red and white blood cells. Medicine 37:119-124.
  2. Hoffman, L. A. and A. Baker. 2011. Estimating the substitution of distillers' grains for corn and soybean meal in the U.S. feed complex. A report from the Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Accessed July 17, 2013.
  3. Kim, B. G., J. H. Lee, H. J. Jung, Y. K. Han, K. M. Park, and I. K. Han. 2001. Effect of Partial replacement of soybean meal with palm kernel meal and copra meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. Asian Australs. J. Anim. Sci. 14:821-830.
  4. Koketsu, Y., G. D. Dial, J. E. Pettigrew, W. E. March, and V. L. King. 1996. Characterization of feed intake patterns during lactation in commercial swine herds. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1202-1210.
  5. Lauridsen, C. and V. Danielsen. 2004. Lactational dietary fat levels and sources influence milk composition and performance of sows and their progeny. Livest. Prod. Sci. 91:95-105.
  6. Miguel, J. C., S. L. Rodriguez-Zas, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2004. Efficacy of Bio-Mos for improving nursery pig performance. J. Swine Health Prod. 12:296-307.
  7. National Research Council. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  8. Noblet, J. and J. M. Perez. 1993. Prediction of digestibility of nutrients and energy values of pig diets from chemical analysis. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3389-3398.
  9. Otten, W., E. Kantiz, M. Tuchscherer, M. Grabner, G. Nurnberg, O. Bellmann, U. Hennig, C. Rehfeldt, and C. C. Metges. 2013. Effects of low and high protein:carbohydrate ratios in the diet of pregnant gilts on maternal cortisol concentrations and the adrenocortical and sympathoadrenal reactivity in their offspring. J. Anim. Sci. 91:2680-2692.
  10. Pettigrew, J. E. 1981. Supplemental dietary fat for peripartal sows: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 53:107-117.
  11. Pettigrew, J. E., J. C. Miguel, and S. Carter. 2005. Bio-Mos(R) in sow diets: performance responses and economics. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries, Proceedings of Alltech's 21st Annual Symposium (Eds. T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jacques). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK. pp. 213-220.
  12. Ravindran, V. and R. Blair. 1992. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. II. Plant protein sources. World Poult. Sci. J. 48:205-231.
  13. Renteria-Flores, J. A., L. J. Johnston, G. C. Shurson, and D. D. Gallaher. 2008. Effect of soluble and insoluble fiber on energy digestibility, nitrogen retention, and fiber digestibility of diets fed to gestating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 86:2568-2575.
  14. Adeola, O. 2001. Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. In: Swine Nutrition (Eds. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC press LLC, Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 903-916.
  15. Ao, X., T. X. Zhou, Q. W. Meng, J. H. Lee, H. D. Jang, J. H. Cho, and I. H. Kim. 2011. Effects of a carbohydrates cocktail supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, and meat quality in finishing pigs fed palm kernel meal. Livest. Sci. 137:238-243.
  16. AOAC International. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  17. Cervantes-Pahm, S. K. and H. H. Stein. 2008. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1841-1849.
  18. Che, T. M., R. W. Johnson, K. W. Kelley, W. G. Van Alstine, K. A. Dawson, C. A. Moran, and J. E. Pettigrew. 2011. Mannan oligosaccharide improves immune responses and growth efficiency of nursery pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2592-2602.
  19. Doeschl-Wilson, A. B., I. Kyriazakris, A. Vincent, M. F. Rothschild, E. Thacker, and L. Galina-Pantoja. 2009. Clinical and pathological responses of pigs from two genetically diverse commercial lines to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1638-1647.
  20. Eissen, J. J., E. Kanis, and B. Kemp. 2000. Sow factors affecting voluntary feed intake during lactation. Livest. Prod. Sci. 64:147-165.
  21. Goering, H. K. and P. J. van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Agriculture Handbook No. 379. ARS, USDA, Washington, DC, USA.
  22. Singhania, R. R., C. R. Soccol, and A. Pandey. 2008. Application of tropical agro-industrial residues as substrate for solid-state fermentation processes. In: Current Developments in Solidstate Fermentation (Eds. A. Pandey, C. R. Soccol, and C. Larroche). Springer, New York, USA. pp. 412-442.
  23. Son, A. R., S. Y. Ji, and B. G. Kim. 2012. Digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations in copra meal, palm kernel meal, and cassava root fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 90:140-142.
  24. Son, A. R., S. Y. Shin, and B. G. Kim. 2013. Standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and cassava root fed to growing pigs. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1609-1613.
  25. Son, A. R., Y. Hyun, J. K. Htoo, and B. G. Kim. 2014. Amino acid digestibility in copra expellers and palm kernel expellers by growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 187:91-97.
  26. Song, M., S. K. Baidoo, G. C. Shurson, M. H. Whitney, L. J. Johnston, and D. D. Gallaher. 2010. Dietary effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on performance and milk composition of lactating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3313-3319.
  27. Sulabo, R. C., W. S. Ju, and H. H. Stein. 2013. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in copra meal, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:1391-1399.
  28. Wachenheim, C. J., P. Novak, E. A. DeVuyst, and D. K. Lambert. 2006. Demand estimation for agricultural processing coproducts. Great Plains Res. 16:85-94.
  29. Williams, C. H., D. J. David, and O. Iismaa. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-385.