DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Intercomparison of the Global Ocean Reanalysis Data

전지구 해양 재분석 자료 비교 분석

  • Chang, You-Soon (Department of Earth Science Education, Kongju National University)
  • 장유순 (공주대학교 지구과학교육과)
  • Received : 2015.02.12
  • Accepted : 2015.05.18
  • Published : 2015.05.31

Abstract

This study summarized the results of the international ocean reanalysis intercomparison project. We introduced the characteristics of various ocean reanalysis systems and analyzed the assimilated performance on the typical eight oceanic variables (heat content, steric height, sea level, surface heat fluxes, mixed layer depth, subsurface salinity, depth of $20^{\circ}C$ isotherm, sea ice). In general, ensemble means show better estimations than those of any individual ocean reanalysis, but it depends on analyzed regions and variables. Among the eight oceanic variables, salinity and sea ice variabilities have large spreads among models. The deep sea, Southern Ocean, and coastal regions including western boundary current commonly appear as the areas with largest uncertainty between different objective analyses and assimilation models. We expect that intercomparison project for the ocean assimilation models independently operated in Korea should be processed, which allows us to join relevant international programs in the near future.

Keywords

ocean reanalysis data;ensemble mean;objective analysis;ocean data assimilation

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 공주대학교

References

  1. Toyoda, T., Y. FujII, T. Kuragano, N, Kosugi, D. Sasano, M. Kamachi, Y. Ishikawa, S. Masuda, K. Sato, T. Awaji, F. Hernandez, N. Ferry, S. Guinehut, M. Martin, K. A. Peterson, S. Good, M. Valdivieso, K. Haines, A. Storto, S. Masina, A. Kohl, Y. Yin, L. Shi, O. Alves, G. Smith, Y. Chang, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, O. Wang, G. Forget, P. Heimbach, O. Wang, I. Fukumori, T. Lee, H. Zuo, M. Balmaseda, 2015b. Interannual-decadal variability of wintertime mixed layer depths in the North Pacific detected by an ensemble of ocean syntheses, Clim. Dyn., submitted.
  2. Tsujino, H., M. Hirabara, H. Nakano, T. Yasuda, T. Motoi, and G. Yamanaka, 2011. Simulating present climate of the global oceanice system using the Meteorological Research Institute Community Ocean Model (MRI.COM): simulation characteristics and variability in the Pacific sector, J. Oceanogr., 67: 449-479. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-011-0050-3
  3. Valdivieso M., K. Haines, M. Blamaseda, B. Barnier, Y.-S. Chang, N. Ferry, Y. FujII, A. Kohl, T. Lee, M. Martin, A. Storto, T. TOyoda, X. Wang, J. Waters, Y. xue, and Y. Yin, 2014. Heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses, Clivar Exchanges, 64: 28-31.
  4. Valdivieso M., K. Haines, M. Blamaseda, B. Barnier, Y. -S. Chang, N. Ferry, Y. FujII, A. Kohl, T. Lee, M. Martin, A. Storto, T. TOyoda, X. Wang, J. Waters, Y. xue, and Y. Yin, 2015. Heat fluxes from ocean and coupled reanalyses, Clim. Dyn., submitted.
  5. W. G. Large, S. G. Yeager, 2009. The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set, Clim. Dyn, 33(2-3): 341-364. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-008-0441-3
  6. Waters, J., M. Martin, J. While, D. Lea, A. Weaver, I. Mirouze, 2014. Implementing a variational data assimilation system in an operational 1/4 degree global ocean model. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 141(687): 333-349.
  7. Wunsch, C. and P. Heimbach, 2013. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates. in "Ocean Circulation and Climate - A 21st century perspective", International Geophysics Series, Vol.103. Edited by G. Sielder, J. Church, S. Griffes, J. Gould, and J. Church. Academic Press, Elsevier.
  8. Xue Yan., Coauthors, 2012. A Comparative Analysis of Upper-Ocean Heat Content Variability from an Ensemble of Operational Ocean Reanalyses, J. Climate, 25(20): 6905-6929. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00542.1
  9. Balmaseda M.A., D. Dee, A. Vidard and D.L.T. Anderson, 2007. A multivariate treatment of bias for sequential data assimilation: Application to the tropical oceans, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 133(622): 167-179. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.12
  10. Behringer, D.W., 2007. The global ocean data assimilation system at NCEP. Preprints, 11th Symp. on Integrated Observing and Assimilation Systems for Atmosphere, Oceans, and Land Surface, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3.3.
  11. Berry David I., Elizabeth C. Kent, 2009. A New Air-Sea Interaction Gridded Dataset from ICOADS With Uncertainty Estimates, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90(50): 645-656. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008BAMS2639.1
  12. Blockley, E. W., M.J. Martin, A.J. McLaren, A.G. Ryan, J. Waters, D.J. Lea, I. Mirouze, K.A. Peterson, A. Sellar, and D. Storkey, 2013. Recent development of the Met Office operational ocean forecasting system: an overview and assessment of the new Global FOAM forecasts, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 6: 6219-6278. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-6-6219-2013
  13. Carton, J. A., B. S. Giese, 2008. A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), Mon. Wea. Rev., 136(8): 2999-3017. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007MWR1978.1
  14. Zhang S., M. J. Harrison, A. Rosati, and A. T. Wittenberg, 2007. System design and evaluation of coupled ensemble data assimilation for global oceanic climate studies. Mon. Weather Rev., 135(10): 3541-3564. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3466.1
  15. Zhang Yuanchong, William B. Rossow, Andrew A. Lacis, Valdar Oinas and Michael I. Mishchenko, 2004. Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres, 109(D19).
  16. Abraham J.P., M. Baringer, N.L. Bindoff, T. Boyer, L.J. Cheng, J.A. Church, J.L. Conroy, C.M. Domingues, J.T. Fasullo, J. Gilson, G. Goni, S.A. Good, J.M. Gorman, V. Gouretski, M. IshII, G.C. Johnson, S. Kizu, J.M. Lyman, A.M. Macdonald, W.J. Minkowycz, S.E. Moffitt, M.D. Palmer, A.R. Piola, F. Reseghetti, K. Schuckmann, K.E. Trenberth, I. Velicogna and J.K. Willis, 2013. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change, Rev. Geophys., 51(3): 450-483. https://doi.org/10.1002/rog.20022
  17. Balmaseda M.A., F. Hernandez, A. Storto, M. D. Palmer, O. Alves, L. Sh5, G. C. Smith , T. Toyoda, M. Valdivieso, B. Barnier, D. Behringer, T. Boyer, Y-S. Chang, G. A. Chepurin, N. Ferry, G. Forget, Y. FujII, S. Good, S. Guinehut, K. Haines, Y. Ishikawa, S. Keeley, A. Kohl, T. Lee, M. Martin, S. Masina, S. Masuda, B. Meyssignac, K. Mogensen, L. Parent, K. A. Peterson, Y. M. Tang, Y. Yin, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, J. Waters, R. Wedd, O. Wang, Y. Xue, M. Chevallier, J-F. Lemieux, F. Dupont, T. Kuragano, M. Kamachi, T. Awaji, A. Caltabiano , K. Wilmer-Becker, F. Gaillard, 2015. The Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP), J. Oper. Oceanogr., 7(3): 81-99.
  18. Balmaseda M.A., F. Hernandez, A. Storto, M. D. Palmer, O. Alves, L. Sh5, G. C. Smith , T. Toyoda, M. Valdivieso, B. Barnier, D. Behringer, T. Boyer, Y-S. Chang, G. A. Chepurin, N. Ferry, G. Forget, Y. FujII, S. Good, S. Guinehut, K. Haines, Y. Ishikawa, S. Keeley, A. Kohl, T. Lee, M. Martin, S. Masina, S. Masuda, B. Meyssignac, K. Mogensen, L. Parent, K. A. Peterson, Y. M. Tang, Y. Yin, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, J. Waters, R. Wedd, O. Wang, Y. Xue, M. Chevallier, J-F. Lemieux, F. Dupont, T. Kuragano, M. Kamachi, T. Awaji, A. Caltabiano, K. Wilmer-Becker, F. Gaillard, 2014. The Ocean Reanalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP), Clivar Exchanges, 64(19): 3-7.
  19. Balmaseda, M.A., K. Mogensen and A.T. Weaver, 2013. Evaluation of the ECMWF ocean reanalysis system ORAS4, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 139: 1132-1161. https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2063
  20. Haines, K., M. Valdivieso, H. Zuo, and V. N. Stepanov, 2012. Transports and budgets in a 1/$4^{\circ}$ global ocean reanalysis 1989-2010, Oce. Sci., 8(3): 333-344. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-333-2012
  21. Hasumi, H., H. Tatebe, T. Kawasaki, M. Kurogi, and T. T. Sakamoto, 2010. Progress of North Pacific modeling over the past decade, Deep-Sea Res., 2(57): 1188-1200.
  22. Hernandez, F., N. Ferry, M. Balmaseda, Y.-S. Chang, G. Chepurin, Y. FujII, S. Guinehut, A. Kohl, M. Martin, B. Meyssignac, L. Parent, K.A. Peterson, A. Storto, T. Toyoda, M. Valdivieso, G. Vernieres, O. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Xue, and Y. Yin, 2014. Sea Level Inter-Comparison: Initial results, Clivar Exchanges, 64: 18-21.
  23. Hosoda Shigeki, Tsuyoshi Ohira, Kanako Sato, Toshio Suga, 2010. Improved description of global mixed-layer depth using Argo profiling floats, J. Oceanogr., 66(6): 773-787. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-010-0063-3
  24. Hunke E.C., and W.H. Lipscomb, 2010. CICE: the Los Alamos sea ice model documentation and software user's manual version 4.1, Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-CC-06-012.
  25. Ingleby, B. and M. Huddleston, 2007. Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles - historical and real-time data, J. Mar. Systems, 65: 158-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.11.019
  26. Chang, Y.-S., A. Rosati, and G.A. Vecchi, 2010. Basin patterns of global sea level changes for 2004-2007, J. Mar. Systems, 80(1-2): 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.11.003
  27. Chang Y.-S., 2012. A review of the quality control of global ocean temperature and salinity data, J. Korean Earth Science Society, 33(6): 554-566. https://doi.org/10.5467/JKESS.2012.33.6.554
  28. Chang, Y.-S., S. Zhang, A. Rosati, T.L. Delworth, and W.F. Stern, 2013. An assessment of oceanic variability for 1960-2010 from the GFDL ensemble coupled data assimilation, Clim. Dyn., 40(3-4): 775-803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-012-1412-2
  29. FujII, Y., T. Nakaegawa, S. Matsumoto, T. Yasuda, G. Yamanaka, and M. Kamachi, 2009. Coupled climate simulation by constraining ocean fields in a coupled model with ocean data, J. Climate, 22: 5541-5557. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2814.1
  30. Dee D.P., S.M. Uppala, A.J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M.A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A.C.M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A.J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S.B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E.V. Holm, L. Isaksen, P. Kallberg, M. Kohler, M. Matricardi, A.P. McNally, B.M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thepaut and F. Vitart, 2011. The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 137(656): 553-397 https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.828
  31. Fichefet, T., and M.A.M. Maqueda, 1997. Sensitivity of a global seaice model to the treatment of ice thermodynamics and dynamics, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 102: 12609-12646. https://doi.org/10.1029/97JC00480
  32. Fukumori, I., 2002. A partitioned Kalman filter and smoother, Mon. Wea. Rev., 130: 1370-1383. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<1370:APKFAS>2.0.CO;2
  33. G.Vernieres, O. Wang and Y. Xue., Cazenave A., W. Llovel, 2010. Contemporary Sea Level Rise, Ann. Rev. mar. Sci., 2: 145-173. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120308-081105
  34. Gent P. R. and J. C. Mcwilliams, 1990. Isopycnal Mixing in Ocean Circulation Models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20(1): 150-155. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1990)020<0150:IMIOCM>2.0.CO;2
  35. Gnanadesikan A, K. W. Dixon, S. M. Griffies, V. Balaji, M. Barreiro, J. A. Beesley, W. F. Cooke, T. L. Delworth, R. Gerdes, M. J. Harrison, I. M. Held, W. J. Hurlin, H.-C. Lee, Z. Liang, G. Nong, R. C. Pacanowski, A. Rosati, J. Russell, B. L. Samuels, Q. Song, M. J. Spelman, R. J. Stouffer, C. O. Sweeney, G. Vecchi, M. Winton, A. T. Wittenberg, F. Zeng, R. Zhang, and J. P. Dunne, 2006. GFDL's CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models. Part II: The Baseline Ocean Simulation. J. Climate, 19: 675-697. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3630.1. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3630.1
  36. IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  37. Janssen PAEM (2012). Ocean wave effects on the daily cycle in SST. J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 117: C00J32. doi:10.1029/2012JC007943. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JC007943
  38. Jeon D.E. Kim, C.W. Shin, C.-H. Kim, J.S. Kug, J.H. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and S.H. Kim, 2013. TIPEX (Tropical Indo-Pacific water trnasport and ecosystem monitoring EXperiment) Program, Ocean and Polar Res., 35(3): 2590-272.
  39. Kanamitsu Masao, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Jack Woollen, Shi-Keng Yang, J.J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002. NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83(11): 1631-1643. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-83-11-1631
  40. Kauker F., T. Kaminski, M. Karcher, R. Giering, R. Gerdes and M. VoBbeck, 2009. Adjoint analysis of the 2007 all time Arctic seaice minimum, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(3).
  41. Kim Y. H., B.-J. Choi, J.-S. Lee, D.-S. Byun, K. Kang, Y.-G. Kim, and Y.-K. Cho, 2013. Korean ocean forecasting system: present and future, The Sea, J. Korean Society of Oceanography, 18(2): 89-103.
  42. Mulet, S., M.-H. Rio, A. Mignot, S. Guinehut and R. Morrow, 2012. A new estimate of the global 3D geostrophic ocean circulation based on satellite data and in situ measurements, Deep-Sea Res. 2: 77-80, 70-81.
  43. Nam, S. Y.-B. Kim, J.J. Park, and K.-I. Chang, 2014. Status and prospect of unmanned, global ocean observations network, The Sea, J. Korean Society of Oceanography, 19(3): 202-214.
  44. Noh Y., and W.-S. Lee, 2008. Mixed and mixing layer depths simulated by an OGCM, J. Oceanogr., 64(2): 217-225. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10872-008-0017-1
  45. Mei Zhao, Harry H. Hendon, Oscar Alves, Yonghong Yin, and David Anderson, 2013. Impact of Salinity Constraints on the Simulated Mean State and Variability in a Coupled Seasonal Forecast Model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 141(1): 388-402. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-11-00341.1
  46. Meyssignac B., Becker M., Llovel W. and Cazenave A., 2012. An assessment of two-dimensional past sea level reconstructions over 1950-2009 based on tide gauge data and different input sea level grids. Surv. Geophys., 33(5): 945-972. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-011-9171-x
  47. Mogensen K, MA. Balmaseda, AT Weaver, 2012. 'The NEMOVAR ocean data assimilation system as implemented in the ECMWF ocean analysis for System 4', Tech. Memo., 668. ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  48. Oke, P. M. Martin, M.A. Balmaseda, G. Brassington, and K. Wilmer-Becker, 2011. Report on the GODAE Ocean View - CLIVAR GSOP Workshop on Observing System Evaluation and Intercomparison.
  49. Palmer, M., M. Balmaseda, Y.-S. Chang, G. Chepurin, Y. FujII, S. Good, S. Guinehut, F. Hernandez, M. Martin, S. Masuda, K.A. Peterson, T. Toyoda, M. Valdivieso, 2014. CLIVAR-GSOP/GODAE intercomparison of ocean heat content: initial results, Clivar Exchanges, 64: 8-10.
  50. Park S.-J., and Y.-S. Choi, 2011. Perspective of East Asian reanalysis data production, Atmos. K. Meteorological Society, 21(2): 1-11.
  51. Kohl, A., 2014. Evaluation of the GECCO2 Ocean Synthesis: Transports of Volume, Heat and Freshwater in the Atlantic, Q.J.R. Met. Soc., 141(686): 166-181.
  52. Kwok, R. and D.A. Rothrock, 2009. Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(15): doi: 10.1029/2008GL036323. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036323
  53. Park, J.J., 2013. Underwater glider: Its applicability in the East/Japan Sea, Ocean and Polar Res., 35(2): 107-121. https://doi.org/10.4217/OPR.2013.35.2.107
  54. Lee, T., T. Awaji, M.A. Balmaseda, E. Grenier, and D. Stammer, 2009. Ocean state estimation for climate research, Oceanography, 22: 160-167.
  55. Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, O. K. Baranova, H. E. Garcia, R. A. Locarnini, A.V. Mishonov, J. R. Reagan, D. Seidov, E. S. Yarosh, M. M. Zweng, 2012. World Ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m) 1955-2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10603.
  56. S. Guinehut, A.-L. Dhomps, G. Larnicol, and P.-Y. Le Traon, 2012. High resolution 3-D temperature and salinity fields derived from in situ and satellite observations, Ocean Sci., 8: 845-857. https://doi.org/10.5194/os-8-845-2012
  57. Martensson S., H.E.M. Meier, P. Pemberton and J. Haapala, 2012. Ridged sea ice characteristics in the Arctic from a coupled multicategory sea ice model, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans., 117(C8).
  58. Masuda, S., T. Awaji, N. Sugiura, J. P.Matthews, T. Toyoda, Y. Kawai, T. Doi, S. Kouketsu, H. Igarashi, K. Katsumata, H. Uchida, T. Kawano, M. Fukasawa, 2010. Simulated Rapid Warming of Abyssal North Pacific Waters, Science, 329: 319-322. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188703
  59. Saha S, S. Moorthi, H.-L. Pan, X. Wu, J. Wang, S. Nadiga, P. Tripp, R. Kistler, J. Woollen, D. Behringer, H. Liu, D. Stokes, R. Grumbine, G. Gayno, J. Wang, Y.-T. Hou, H.-Y. Chuang, H.-M. H. Juang, J. Sela, M. Iredell, R. Treadon, D. Kleist, P. V. Delst, D. Keyser, J. Derber, M. Ek, J. Meng, H. Wei, R. Yang, S. Lord, H. Van Den Dool, A. Kumar, W. Wang, C. Long, M. Chelliah, Y. Xue, B. Huang, J.-K. Schemm, W. Ebisuzaki, R. Lin, P. Xie, M. Chen, S. Zhou, W. Higgins, C.-Z. Zou, Q. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Han, L. Cucurull, R. W. Reynolds, G. Rutledge, and M. Goldberg, 2010. The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91: 1015-1057. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1
  60. Smith, D.M., S. Cusack, A.W. Colman, C.K. Folland, G.R. Harris, J.M. Murphy, 2007. Improved Surface Temperature Prediction for the Coming Decade from a Global Climate Model, Science, 317(5839): 796-799. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1139540
  61. Smith G, M. Chevallier, J.-F. Lemieux, F. Dupont, G. Vernieres, A. Storto, T. Toyoda, Y. FujII, Y.-S. Chang, M. Valdivieso, K. A. Peterson, N. Ferry, F. Hernandez, M. A. Balmaseda, S. Keeley, X. Wang, 2014. Preliminary evaluation of sea ice fields from the ocean reanalyses intercomparison project, Clivar Exchanges, 64(19): 32-34.
  62. Storto, A., S. Masina, M. Balmaseda, S. Guinehut, Y. Xue, T. Szekely, I. Fukumori, G. Forget, Y.-S. Chang, S. A. Good, A. Kohl, G. Vernieres, N. Ferry, K. A. Peterson, D. Behringer, M. IshII. S. Masuda, Y. FujII. T. Toyoda, Y. Yin, M. Valdivieso, B. Barnier, T. Boyer, T. Lee, J. Gourrion. O. Wang, P. Heimback. A. Rosai. R. Kovach, F. Hernandez. M. J. Martin. M. Kamachi. T. Kuragano. K. Mogensen, S. Alves, K. Haines. X. Wang, 2015. Steric sea level variability (1993-2010) in an ensemble of ocean reanalyses and objective analyses, Clim. Dyn., in press.
  63. Stroeve Julienne, Marika M. Holland, Walt Meier, Ted Scambos and Mark Serreze, 2007. Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(9).
  64. Sugiura, N., T. Awaji, S. Masuda, T. Mochizuki, T. Toyoda, T. Miyama, H. Igarashi, and Y. Ishikawa, 2008. Development of a four-dimensional variational coupled data assimilation system for enhanced analysis and prediction of seasonal to interannual climate variations, J. Geophys. Res., 113: C10017. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004741
  65. Toyoda, T, Y. FujII, T. Yasuda, N. Usui, T. Iwao, T. Kuragano, and M. Kamachi, 2013. Improved analysis of the seasonal-interannual fields by a global ocean data assimilation system, Theor. Appl. Mec. Japan, 61: 31-48.
  66. Toyoda, T., Y. FujII, T. Kuragano, M. Kamachi, Y. Ishikawa, S. Masuda, T. Awaji, F. Hernandez, N. Ferry, S. Guinehut, M. Martin, K. A. Peterson, S. Good, M. Valdivieso, K. Haines, A. Storto, A. Kohl, Y. Yin, L. Shi, G. Smith, Y. Chang, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, O. Wang, T. Lee, M. Balmaseda, 2014. Mixed layer depth intercomparison among global ocean syntheses reanalyses, Clivar Exchanges, 64: 22-24.
  67. Speer, K. and G. Forget, 2013. Global distribution and formation of mode waters. Chapter 9 in "Ocean Circulation and Climate - A 21st century perspective", International Geophysics Series, Vol. 103. Edited by G. Sielder, J. Church, S. Griffes, J. Gould, and J. Church. Academic Press, Elsevier.
  68. Stammer, D.A. Kohl, T. Awaji, M. Balmaseda, D. Behringer, J. Carton, N. Ferry, A. Fischer, I. Fukumori, B. Gise, K. Haines, E. Harrison, P. Heimbach, M. Kamachi, C. Keppenne, T. Lee, S. Masina, D. Menemenlis, R. Ponte, E. Remy, M. Rienecker, A. Rosati, J. Schroter, D. Smith, A. Weaver, C. Wunsch, Y. Xue, 2010. Ocean Information Provided Through Ensemble Ocean Syntheses, OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society.
  69. Storto, A., S. Dobricic, S. Masina, and P. Di Pietro, 2011. Assimilating along-track altimetric observations through local hydro1069 static adjustments in a global ocean reanalysis system, Mon. Wea. Rev., 139: 738-754. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3350.1
  70. Storto, A., S. Masina, M. Balmaseda, S. Guinehut, M. Martin, K.A. Peterson, S. Good, M. Valdivieso, K. Haines, A. Kohl, Y. Yin, L. Shi, G. Smith, Y. -S. Chang, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, O. Wang, T. Lee N. Ferry, Y. FujII, F. Hernandez, Y. Ishikawa, S. Masuda, Y. Xue, 2014. Comparison of Steric Sea Level from Ocean Reanalyses and Objective Analyses, Clivar Exchanges, 64: 15-17.
  71. Toyoda, T., Y. FujII, T. Kuragano, M. Kamachi, Y. Ishikawa, S. Masuda, T. Awaji, F. Hernandez, N. Ferry, S. Guinehut, M. Martin, K. A. Peterson, S. Good, M. Valdivieso, K. Haines, A. Storto, A. Kohl, Y. Yin, L. Shi, G. Smith, Y. Chang, G. Vernieres, X. Wang, O. Wang, T. Lee, M. Balmaseda, 2015a. Intercomparision and validation of the mixed layer depth fields of global ocean syntheses/reanalyses, Clim. Dyn., accepted.
  72. Yin Y, Alves O, Oke, PR., 2011. An ensemble ocean data assimilation system for seasonal prediction, Mon. Wea. Rev., 139: 786-808. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010MWR3419.1
  73. Yu, L., X. Jin, and R.A. Weller, 2008. Multidecade Global Flux Datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) Project: Latent and Sensible Heat Fluxes, Ocean Evaporation, and Related Surface Meteorological Variables. Technical Report OAFlux Project (OA2008-01), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
  74. Chevallier Matthieu, David Salas y Melia, Aurore Voldoire, Michel Deque, and Gilles Garric, 2013. Seasonal Forecasts of the Pan-Arctic Sea Ice Extent Using a GCM-Based Seasonal Prediction System, J. Climate, 26(16): 6092-6104. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00612.1
  75. Church, J.A., J.M. Gregory, N.J. White, S.M. Platten, and J.X. Mitrovica. 2011. Understanding and projecting sea level change. Oceanography, 24(2): 130-143, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2011.33. https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.33
  76. Danabasoglu Gokhan., Steve G. Yeager, David Bailey, Erik Behrens, Mats Bentsen, Daohua Bi, Arne Biastoch, Claus Boning, Alexandra Bozec, Vittorio M. Canuto, Christophe Cassou, Eric Chassignet, Andrew C. Coward, Sergey Danilov, Nikolay Diansky, Helge Drange, Riccardo Farneti, Elodie Fernandez, Pier Giuseppe Fogli, Gael Forget, Yosuke FujII, Stephen M. Griffies, Anatoly Gusev, Patrick Heimbach, Armando Howard, Thomas Jung, Maxwell Kelley, William G. Large, Anthony Leboissetier, Lu. Jianhua, 2013. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part I: Mean states. Ocean Modelling, 73: 76-107.
  77. De Boyer Montegut C., Gurvan Madec, Albert S. Fischer, Alban Lazar and Daniele Iudicone, 2004. Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 109(12): C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002378
  78. Chang, Y.-S. and H.-R. Shin, 2014. Vertical gradient correction for the oceanographic Atlas of the East Asian Seas, J. Res.-Oceans, 119(8): 5546-5554.
  79. Chang, Y.-S., G. A. Vecchi, A. Rosati, S. Zhang, and X. Yang, 2014. Comparison of global objective analyzed T-S fields of the upper ocean for 2008-2011, J. Mars. Systems, 137: 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.04.001