Potential of some traditionally used edible plants for prevention and cure of diabesity associated comorbidities

  • Kumar, Vikas ;
  • Thakur, Ajit Kumar ;
  • Verma, Suruchi ;
  • Yadav, Vaishali ;
  • Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder
  • Received : 2014.09.05
  • Accepted : 2015.05.12
  • Published : 2015.05.31


Medicinal uses of edible and other plants for prevention and cure of obesity and overweight associated metabolic and mental health problems have since long been known to scholars and practitioners of Ayurvedic and other traditionally known system of medicine. Modernized versions of numerous edible plant derived formulations mentioned in ancient Ayurvedic texts are at present some of the most popular, or best selling, herbal remedies in India and numerous other countries suffering from double burden of diseases caused by malnutrition and obesity. Preclinical and clinical information now available on edible plants and their bioactive constituents justify traditionally known medicinal uses of products derived from them for prevention and cure of obesity associated type-2 diabetes, psychopathologies and other health problems. Such information now available on a few edible Ayurvedic plants and their formulations and suggesting that their stress response regulating effects are involved in their broad spectrums of bioactivity profiles are summarized in this communication. Implications of recent physiological and pharmacological observations made with numerous phytochemicals isolated from edible plants for better understanding of traditionally known medicinal uses of herbal remedies are also pointed out.


Ayurveda;diabesity;neurological disorders;Brassica juncea;Emblica officinalis;Piper longum;Curcuma


  1. Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: Problems and promises. Mol Pharm. 2007;4:807-818.
  2. Anannarukan N, Niwattisaiwong N, Warisnoicharoen W, Winitthana T, Pramyothin P, Chaichantipyuth C, Lawanprasert S. Inhibition of human cytochrome p450 in vitro by phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus emblica aqueous extracts. Thai J Pharm Sci. 2012;36:135-143.
  3. Anonymous. Position of the american dietetic association and dietitians of canada: Vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:748-765.
  4. Aroniadis OC, Brandt LJ. Fecal microbiota transplantation: Past, present and future. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013;29:79-84.
  5. Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre OJ. Glossary of indian medicinal plants with active principles, second supplement. (New Delhi, India; Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR), 1992.
  6. Baboota RK, Bishnoi M, Ambalam P, Kondepudi KK, Sarma SM, Boparai RK, Podili K. Functional food ingredients for the management of obesity and associated co-morbidities - a review. J Funct Foods. 2013;5:997-1012.
  7. Babu PS, Srinivasan K. Hypolipidemic action of curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 1997;166:169-175.
  8. Bhatia N, Jaggi A, Singh N, Anand P, Dhawan R. Adaptogenic potential of curcumin in experimental chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-induced memory deficits and alterations in functional homeostasis. J Nat Med. 2011;65:532-543.
  9. Biradar YS, Jagatap S, Khandelwal KR, Singhania SS. Exploring of antimicrobial activity of triphala mashi-an ayurvedic formulation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008;5:107-113.
  10. Birringer M. Hormetics: Dietary triggers of an adaptive stress response. Pharm Res. 2011;28:2680-2694.
  11. Agarwal NB, Jain S, Agarwal NK, Mediratta PK, Sharma KK. Modulation of pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling and oxidative stress by curcumin in mice. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:756-759.
  12. Aggarwal B, Sundaram C, Malani N, Ichikawa H. Curcumin: The indian solid gold. In The molecular targets and therapeutic uses of curcumin in health and disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;595:1-75.
  13. Aggarwal BB, Yuan W, Li S, Gupta SC. Curcumin-free turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities: Identification of novel components of turmeric. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:1529-1542.
  14. Agrawal S, Millett CJ, Dhillon PK, Subramanian SV, EbrahimS. Type of vegetarian diet, obesity and diabetes in adult indian population. Nutr J. 2014;13:89.
  15. Ahmed B, Tripathi K, Pandey ND, Khan M. Piperone-3 and piperone-4: Two new ketones isolated from Piper longum L. Dried fruits. Intl J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014;26:318-321.
  16. Ahmed SH, Guillem K, Vandaele Y. Sugar addiction: Pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013;16:434-439.
  17. Ahmed T, Gilani AH. Therapeutic potential of turmeric in alzheimer's disease: Curcumin or curcuminoids?. Phytother Res. 2014;28:517-525.
  18. Akinloye O, Ogunleye K, Oguntibeju OO. Cadmium, lead, arsenic and selenium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. African J Biotechnol. 2013;9:5189-5195.
  19. Alappat L, Awad AB. Curcumin and obesity: Evidence and mechanisms. Nutr Rev. 2010;68:729-738.
  20. Ali RE, Rattan SI. Curcumin's biphasic hormetic response on proteasome activity and heat-shock protein synthesis in human keratinocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1067:394-399.
  21. Bao L, Bai S, Borijihan G. Hypolipidemic effects of a new piperine derivative gb-n from Piper longum in high-fat diet-fed rats. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:962-967.
  22. Bao N, Ochir S, Sun Z, Borjihan G, Yamagishi T. Occurrence of piperidine alkaloids in piper species collected in different areas. J Nat Med. 2014;68:211-214.
  23. Barrajon-Catalan E, Herranz-Lopez M, Joven J, Segura-Carretero A, Alonso-Villaverde C, Menendez JA, Micol V. Molecular promiscuity of plant polyphenols in the management of age-related diseases: Far beyond their antioxidant properties. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;824:141-159.
  24. Baty V, Mougin B, Dekeuwer C, Carret G. Gut health in the era of the human gut microbiota: From metaphor to biovalue. Med Health Care Philos. 2014;17:579-597.
  25. Belapurkar P, Goyal P, Tiwari-Barua P. Immunomodulatory effects of triphala and its individual constituents: A review. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014;76:467-475.
  26. Bezerra DP, Pessoa C, de Moraes MO, Saker-Neto N, Silveira ER, Costa-Lotufo LV. Overview of the therapeutic potential of piplartine (piperlongumine). Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013;48:453-463.
  27. Bhanumathy M, Shivaprasad HN, Nargund LVG. Protective effect of Curcuma longa rhizomes against physical stressinduced perturbations in rats. J Nat Remedies. 2013;14:27-32.
  28. Bharal N, Sahaya K, Jain S, Mediratta PK, Sharma KK. Curcumin has anticonvulsant activity on increasing current electroshock seizures in mice. Phytother Res. 2008;22:1660-1664.
  29. Balaji S, Chempakam B. Toxicity prediction of compounds from turmeric (Curcuma longa l). Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2951-2959.
  30. Banks WA, Owen JB, Erickson MA. Insulin in the brain: There and back again. Pharmacol Ther. 2012;136:82-93.
  31. Bolca S, Van de Wiele T, Possemiers S. Gut metabotypes govern health effects of dietary polyphenols. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2013;24:220-225.
  32. Bradford PG. Curcumin and obesity. Biofactors. 2013;39:78-87.
  33. BrahmaNaidu P, Nemani H, Meriga B, Mehar SK, Potana S, Ramgopalrao S. Mitigating efficacy of piperine in the physiological derangements of high fat diet induced obesity in sprague dawley rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2014;221:42-51.
  34. Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annu Rev Pharmacol. 1969;9:419-430.
  35. Brindley DN, Rolland Y. Possible connections between stress, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and altered lipoprotein metabolism that may result in atherosclerosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989;77:453-461.
  36. Brodniewicz T, Grynkiewicz G. Plant phenolics as drug leads - what is missing? Acta Pol Pharm. 2012;69:1203-1217.
  37. Burcelin R, Serino M, Chabo C, Blasco-Baque V, Amar J. Gut microbiota and diabetes: From pathogenesis to therapeutic perspective. Acta Diabetol. 2011;48:257-273.
  38. Calabrese EJ. Hormesis is central to toxicology, pharmacology and risk assessment. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:249-261.
  39. Calabrese V, Cornelius C, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Iavicoli I, Di Paola R, Koverech A, Cuzzocrea S, Rizzarelli E, Calabrese EJ. Cellular stress responses, hormetic phytochemicals and vitagenes in aging and longevity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:753-783.
  40. Calabrese V, Cornelius C, Trovato A, Cavallaro M, Mancuso C, Di Rienzo L, Condorelli D, De Lorenzo A, Calabrese EJ. The hormetic role of dietary antioxidants in free radical-related diseases. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:877-883.
  41. Carriba P, Comella JX. Amyloid beta, tnfalpha and faim-l; approaching new therapeutic strategies for ad. Front Neurol. 2014;5:276.
  42. Cartea ME, Francisco M, Soengas P, Velasco P. Phenolic compounds in brassica vegetables. Molecules. 2010;16:251-280.
  43. Carvalho LA, Urbanova L, Hamer M, Hackett RA, Lazzarino AI, Steptoe A. Blunted glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid sensitivity to stress in people with diabetes. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;51:209-218.
  44. Chainani-Wu N. Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: A component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:161-168.
  45. Abedon ST. Phage therapy: Eco-physiological pharmacology. Scientifica (Cairo). 2014;2014:581639.
  46. Abu-Taweel GM, Ajarem JS, Ahmad M. Protective effect of curcumin on anxiety, learning behavior, neuromuscular activities, brain neurotransmitters and oxidative stress enzymes in cadmium intoxicated mice. J Behav Brain Sci. 2013;3:74-84.
  47. Adam TC, Epel ES. Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiol Behav. 2007;91:449-458.
  48. Afridi HI, Kazi TG, Kazi N, Jamali MK, Arain MB, Jalbani N, Baig JA, Sarfraz RA. Evaluation of status of toxic metals in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80:280-288.
  49. Chandra P, Bajpai V, Srivastva M, Kumar KBR, Kumar B. Metabolic profiling of piper species by direct analysis using real time mass spectrometry combined with principal component analysis. Anal Methods. 2014;6:4234-4239.
  50. Chandrasekaran C, Vijayalakshmi M, Prakash K, Bansal V, Meenakshi J, Amit A. Review article: Herbal approach for obesity management. Am J Plant Sci. 2012;3:1003-1014.
  51. Chang CL, Chen YC, Chen HM, Yang NS, Yang WC. Natural cures for type 1 diabetes: A review of phytochemicals, biological actions, and clinical potential. Curr Med Chem. 2013a;20:899-907.
  52. Chang CL, Lin Y, Bartolome AP, Chen YC, Chiu SC, Yang WC. Herbal therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: Chemistry, biology, and potential application of selected plants and compounds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013b;2013:378657.
  53. Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Holistic psychopharmacology and promiscuous plants and principles of ayurveda. Am J Plant Sci. 2012;3:1015-1021.
  54. Chaudhary SA, Gadhvi KV, Chaudhary AB. Comprehensive review on world herb trade and most utilized medicinal plant. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Tech. 2010;1:510-517.
  55. Chaurasia A, Das D, From 5th World Ayurveda Congress Bhopal MPID. Pa01.07. Evaluation of anti hyperglycemic potential of Piper longum root (linn.) on alloxan induced diabetic mice. Anc Sci Life. 2012;32:S56.
  56. Chaurasia A, Das D. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic potential of Piper longum root (linn.) on alloxan induced diabetic mice. Adv Pharmacol Toxicol. 2013;14:1-6.
  57. Chempakam B, Parthasarathy VA. Turmeric. In Chemistry of spices. Parthasarathy VA, Chempakam B, Zachariah TJ eds. (Egham, UK; CAB International), pp. 97-123, 2008.
  58. Cherng YG, Tsai CC, Chung HH, Lai YW, Kuo SC, Cheng JT. Antihyperglycemic action of sinapic acid in diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:12053-12059.
  59. Chimakurthy J, Talasila M. Effects of curcumin on pentylenetetrazole-induced anxiety-like behaviors and associated changes in cognition and monoamine levels. Psychol Neurosci. 2010;3:239-244.
  60. Chiou YS, Wu JC, Huang Q, Shahidi F, Wang YJ, Ho CT, Pan MH. Metabolic and colonic microbiota transformation may enhance the bioactivities of dietary polyphenols. J Func Foods. 2014;7:3-25.
  61. Choi S, Choi Y, Choi Y, Kim S, Jang J, Park T. Piperine reverses high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in mice. Food Chem. 2013;141:3627-3635.
  62. Choudhary KM, Mishra A, Poroikov VV, Goel RK. Ameliorative effect of curcumin on seizure severity, depression like behavior, learning and memory deficit in postpentylenetetrazole-kindled mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;704:33-40.
  63. Choudhary M, Sangha J, Grover K. Conventional and nonconventional edible oils: An indian perspective. J Am Oil Chemists' Soc. 2014;91:179-206.
  64. Chouhan B, Kumawat RC, Kotecha M, Ramamurthy A, Nathani S. Triphala: A comprehensive ayurvedic review. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2013;4:612-617.
  65. Chulet R, Pradhan P. A review on rasayana. Pharmacogn Rev. 2009;3:229-234.
  66. Cicero Bezerra Felipe F, Trajano Sousa Filho J, de Oliveira Souza LE, Alexandre Silveira J, Esdras de Andrade Uchoa D, Rocha Silveira E, Deusdenia Loiola Pessoa O, de Barros Viana GS. Piplartine, an amide alkaloid from piper tuberculatum, presents anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:605-612.
  67. Cnop M, Foufelle F, Velloso LA. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, obesity and diabetes. Trends Mol Med. 2012;18:59-68.
  68. Colagiuri S. Diabesity: Therapeutic options. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010;12:463-473.
  69. Costantini D, Metcalfe NB, Monaghan P. Ecological processes in a hormetic framework. Ecol Lett. 2010;13:1435-1447.
  70. Cryan JF, Dinan TG. Mind-altering microorganisms: The impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012;13:701-712.
  71. D'Souza JJ, D'Souza PP, Fazal F, Kumar A, Bhat HP, Baliga MS. Anti-diabetic effects of the indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis gaertn: Active constituents and modes of action. Food Funct. 2014;5:635-644.
  72. D'Aversa F, Tortora A, Ianiro G, Ponziani F, Annicchiarico B, Gasbarrini A. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. Intern Emerg Med. 2013;8:11-15.
  73. Dai R, Lim LT. Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed meal powder. J Food Sci. 2014;79:E47-53.
  74. Dallman MF, Pecoraro NC, la Fleur SE. Chronic stress and comfort foods: Self-medication and abdominal obesity. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19:275-280.
  75. Dasaroju S, Gottumukkala KM. Current trends in the research of Emblica officinalis (amla): A pharmacological perspective. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014;24:150-159.
  76. Davenport J, Balch M, Galam L, Girgis A, Hall J, Blagg BS, Matts RL. High-throughput screen of natural product libraries for hsp90 inhibitors. Biology (Basel). 2014;3:101-138.
  77. Davinelli S, Sapere N, Zella D, Bracale R, Intrieri M, Scapagnini G. Pleiotropic protective effects of phytochemicals in alzheimer's disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:386527.
  78. Davis C. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: Relevance to the "food addiction" construct. Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2014;5:129-137.
  79. Dembinska-Kiec A, Mykkanen O, Kiec-Wilk B, Mykkanen H. Antioxidant phytochemicals against type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:ES109-ES117.
  80. Dhanalakshmi S, Devi RS, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Thangaraj R. Protective effect of triphala on cold stressinduced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127:1863-1867.
  81. Dhanalakshmi S, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Parthasarathy NJ, Devi RS. Antioxidant property of triphala on cold stress induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. J Health Sci. 2006;52:843-847.
  82. Dietrich MO, Horvath TL. Limitations in anti-obesity drug development: The critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012;11:675-691.
  83. Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Regulation of the stress response by the gut microbiota: Implications for psychoneuroendocrinology. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:1369-1378.
  84. Dinkova-Kostova AT, Kostov RV. Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in health and disease. Trends Mol Med. 2012;18:337-347.
  85. Doucette CD, Hilchie AL, Liwski R, Hoskin DW. Piperine, a dietary phytochemical, inhibits angiogenesis. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:231-239.
  86. Dragan S, Andrica F, Serban MC, Timar R. Polyphenols-rich natural products for treatment of diabetes. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22:14-22.
  87. Drewnowski A, Gomez-Carneros C. Bitter taste, phytonutrients, and the consumer: A review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:1424-1435.
  88. Eddouks M, Bidi A, El Bouhali B, Hajji L, Zeggwagh NA. Antidiabetic plants improving insulin sensitivity. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014;66:1197-1214.
  89. Epel ES, Lithgow GJ. Stress biology and aging mechanisms: Toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69:S10-S16.
  90. Epel ES. Psychological and metabolic stress: A recipe for accelerated cellular aging? Hormones (Athens). 2009;8:7-22.
  91. Everard A, Cani PD. Diabetes, obesity and gut microbiota. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;27:73-83.
  92. Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, Chou FE. Separation and purification of glucosinolates from crude plant homogenates by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2003;996:85-93.
  93. Farag YM, Gaballa MR. Diabesity: An overview of a rising epidemic. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:28-35.
  94. Farooqui AA. Effect of dietary phytochemicals on metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders. In Metabolic syndrome. (New York, USA; Springer) , pp. 191-234, 2013.
  95. Fasinu PS, Bouic PJ, Rosenkranz B. An overview of the evidence and mechanisms of herb-drug interactions. Front Pharmacol. 2012;3:69.
  96. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's handbook of complementary and alternative medicines. (Pennsylvania, USA; Springhouse Corporation), 1999.
  97. Fontana L. Modulating human aging and age-associated diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:1133-1138.
  98. Foster JA, McVey Neufeld KA. Gut-brain axis: How the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci. 2013;36:305-312.
  99. Franco R, Cedazo-Minguez A. Successful therapies for alzheimer's disease: Why so many in animal models and none in humans? Front Pharmacol. 2014;5:146.
  100. Garcia-Alloza M, Borrelli LA, Rozkalne A, Hyman BT, Bacskai BJ. Curcumin labels amyloid pathology in vivo, disrupts existing plaques, and partially restores distorted neurites in an alzheimer mouse model. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1095-1104.
  101. Gastaldi G, Ruiz J. Metabolic dysfunction and chronic stress: A new sight at "diabesity" pandemic. Rev Med Suisse. 2009;5:1273-1277.
  102. Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Mazzanti G, Bartolini A. Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene. Farmaco. 2001;56:387-389.
  103. Gilhotra N, Dhingra D. Possible involvement of gabaergic and nitriergic systems for antianxiety-like activity of piperine in unstressed and stressed mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2014;66:885-891.
  104. Ginty AT, Phillips AC, Higgs S, Heaney JL, Carroll D. Disordered eating behaviour is associated with blunted cortisol and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:715-724.
  105. Ginty AT. Blunted responses to stress and reward: Reflections on biological disengagement? Int J Psychophysiol. 2013;90:90-94.
  106. Gonzalez-Castejon M, Rodriguez-Casado A. Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: A review. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:438-455.
  107. Goodacre R. Metabolomics of a superorganism. J Nutr. 2007;137:259S-266S.
  108. Greiner AK, Papineni RV, Umar S. Chemoprevention in gastrointestinal physiology and disease. Natural products and microbiome. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;307:G1-15.
  109. Grover JK, Yadav S, Vats V. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of Brassica juncea diet and their effect on hepatic glycogen content and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;241:95-101.
  110. Grover JK, Yadav SP, Vats V. Effect of feeding murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea diet on [correction] kidney functions and glucose levels in streptozotocin diabetic mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:1-5.
  111. Grynkiewicz G, Slifirski P. Curcumin and curcuminoids in quest for medicinal status. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(2):201-212.
  112. Gunthorpe MJ, Szallasi A. Peripheral trpv1 receptors as targets for drug development: New molecules and mechanisms. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:32-41.
  113. Gupta PC. Biological and pharmacological properties of Terminalia chebula retz. (haritaki)-an overview. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2012;4:62-68.
  114. Gupta SC, Sung B, Kim JH, Prasad S, Li S, Aggarwal BB. Multitargeting by turmeric, the golden spice: From kitchen to clinic. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:1510-1528.
  115. Halkier BA, Gershenzon J. Biology and biochemistry of glucosinolates. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2006;57:303-333.
  116. Hasan MN, Ferdoushi A, Ara N, Rahman S, Hossan MS, Rahmatullah M. Preliminary phytochemical screening, toxicity, antihyperglycemic and analgesic activity studies with Curcuma longa leaves. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:81-91.
  117. Huang H, Morgan CM, Asolkar RN, Koivunen ME, Marrone PG. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:9994-10000.
  118. Inyang IJ, Eyo AAO, Olajide TM, Essien A. Effects of ethanolic extract of Brassica juncea (mustard seed) on the brain and kidney tissues of albino wistar rats. J Biol Agric Healthc. 2014;4:75-82.
  119. Jakovljevic T, Cvjetko M, Sedak M, Dokic M, Bilandzic N, Vorkapic-Furac J, Redovnikovic IR. Balance of glucosinolates content under cd stress in two brassica species. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;63:99-106.
  120. Janero DR. Relieving the cardiometabolic disease burden: A perspective on phytometabolite functional and chemical annotation for diabetes management. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014;15:5-10.
  121. Jayaprakasha GK, Rao LJ, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activities of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Food Chem. 2006;98:720-724.
  122. Jiang J, Wang W, Sun YJ, Hu M, Li F, Zhu DY. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on focal cerebral ischemic rats by preventing blood-brain barrier damage. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;561:54-62.
  123. Jiang ZY, Liu WF, Huang CG, Huang XZ. New amide alkaloids from Piper longum. Fitoterapia. 2013;84:222-226.
  124. Jin Z, Borjihan G, Zhao R, Sun Z, Hammond GB, Uryu T. Antihyperlipidemic compounds from the fruit of Piper longum L. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1194-1196.
  125. Jo YS, Park JR, Park SK, Chun SS, Chung SY, Ha BS. Effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) on cholesterol metabolism in rats. Korean J Nutr. 1993;26:13-20.
  126. Joardar A, Das S. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:973-983.
  127. John R, Ahmad P, Gadgil K, Sharma S. Heavy metal toxicity: Effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L. Int J Plant Prod. 2009;3:65-76.
  128. Joshi J, Ghaisas S, Vaidya A, Vaidya R, Kamat DV, Bhagwat AN, Bhide S. Early human safety study of turmeric oil (Curcuma longa oil) administered orally in healthy volunteers. J Assoc Physicians India. 2003;51:1055-1060.
  129. Joshi JV, Paradkar PH, Jagtap SS, Agashe SV, Soman G, Vaidya AB. Chemopreventive potential and safety profile of a Curcuma longa extract in women with cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:3305-3311.
  130. Joven J, Rull A, Rodriguez-Gallego E, Camps J, Riera-Borrull M, Hernandez-Aguilera A, Martin-Paredero V, Segura- Carretero A, Micol V, Alonso-Villaverde C, Menendez JA. Multifunctional targets of dietary polyphenols in disease: A case for the chemokine network and energy metabolism. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;51:267-279.
  131. Jung HA, Woo JJ, Jung MJ, Hwang GS, Choi JS. Kaempferol glycosides with antioxidant activity from Brassica juncea. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:1379-1384.
  132. Kadian R, Parle M, Yadav M. Therapeutic potential and phytopharmacology of Terminalia bellerica. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:804-819.
  133. Kahn SE, Cooper ME, Del Prato S. Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Perspectives on the past, present, and future. Lancet. 2014;383:1068-1083.
  134. Kandarkar SV, Sawant SS, Ingle AD, Deshpande SS, Maru GB. Subchronic oral hepatotoxicity of turmeric in mice--histopathological and ultrastructural studies. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998;36:675-679.
  135. Kar S, Roy K. Qsar of phytochemicals for the design of better drugs. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2012;7:877-902.
  136. Karakida F, Ikeya Y, Tsunakawa M, Yamaguchi T, Ikarashi Y, Takeda S, Aburada M. Cerebral protective and cognitionimproving effects of sinapic acid in rodents. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007;30:514-519.
  137. Kasabri V, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YHA. In vitro modulation of pancreatic insulin secretion, extrapancreatic insulin action and peptide glycation by Curcuma longa aqueous extracts. J Exp Integr Med. 2014;4:187-193.
  138. Kelly SJ, Ismail M. Stress and type 2 diabetes: A review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Annu Rev Public Health. 2015;36:441-462.
  139. Kennedy DO. Plants and the human brain. (New York, USA; Oxford University Press), 2014a.
  140. Kennedy DO. Polyphenols and the human brain: Plant "secondary metabolite" ecologic roles and endogenous signaling functions drive benefits. Adv Nutr. 2014b;5:515-533.
  141. Khadem S, Marles RJ. Monocyclic phenolic acids; hydroxyand polyhydroxybenzoic acids: Occurrence and recent bioactivity studies. Molecules. 2010;15:7985-8005.
  142. Khan BA, Abraham A, Leelamma S. Anti-oxidant effects of curry leaf, murraya koenigii and mustard seeds, Brassicajuncea in rats fed with high fat diet. Indian J Exp Biol. 1997;35:148-150.
  143. Khan BA, Abraham A, Leelamma S. Hypoglycemic action of murraya koenigii (curry leaf) and Brassica juncea (mustard): Mechanism of action. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1995;32:106-108.
  144. Khan BA, Abraham A, Leelamma S. Murraya koenigii andBrassica juncea-alterations on lipid profile in 1-2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis. Invest New Drugs. 1996;14:365-369.
  145. Khosla S, Sharma S. A short description on pharmacogenetic properties of Emblica officinalis. Spatula DD. 2012;2:187-193.
  146. Kiasalari Z, Roghani M, Khalili M, Rahmati B, Baluchnejadmojarad T. Antiepileptogenic effect of curcumin on kainate-induced model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:1572-1578.
  147. Kim DSHL, Park S-Y, Kim J-Y. Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa l. (zingiberaceae) that protect pc12 rat pheochromocytoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells from ${\alpha}$a(1-142) insult. Neurosci Lett. 2001;303:57-61.
  148. Kim HY, Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Cheigh HS, Choi JS, Chung HY. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea). Phytother Res. 2003;17:465-471.
  149. Kim JE, Jung MJ, Jung HA, Woo JJ, Cheigh HS, Chung HY, Choi JS. A new kaempferol 7-o-triglucoside from the leaves of Brassica juncea L. Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25:621-624.
  150. Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Practical Pharmacognosy, Twenty second edition. (Pune, India: Nirali Prakashan), 2003.
  151. Krishna M, Joy B, Sundaresan A. Effect on oxidative stress, glucose uptake level and lipid droplet content by apigenin 7, 4'-dimethyl ether isolated from Piper longum L. J Food Sci Tech. 2014:1-10.
  152. Krishnaveni M, Mirunalini S. Therapeutic potential of Phyllanthus emblica (amla): The ayurvedic wonder. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;21:93-105.
  153. Ku SK, Kim JA, Bae JS. Vascular barrier protective effects of piperlonguminine in vitro and in vivo. Inflamm Res. 2014;63:369-379.
  154. Kulkarni S, Dhir A, Akula KK. Potentials of curcumin as an antidepressant. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:1233-1241.
  155. Kumar A, Panghal S, Mallapur SS, Kumar M, Ram V, Singh BK. Antiinflammatory activity of Piper longum fruit oil. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009;71:454-456.
  156. Kumar S, Andy A. Health promoting bioactive phytochemicals from brassica. Int Food Res J. 2012;19:141-152.
  157. Kumar S, Kamboj J, Suman, Sharma S. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum Linn. Fruit. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2011b;4:134-140.
  158. Kumar S, Sharma S, Vasudeva N. Screening of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential of oil from Piper longum and piperine with their possible mechanism. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1723-1736.
  159. Kumar V, Chatterjee SS. A holistic approach for evaluating the potential of triphala extract against neurological disorders. PharmaNutrition. 2014b;2:90.
  160. Kumar V, Chatterjee SS. Single and repeated dose effects of phytochemicals in rodent behavioural models. EC Pharm Sci. 2014a;1:16-18.
  161. Kumar V, Thakur A, Chatterjee S. Obesity, cancer and psychopathology: Can vegetarian diet be of help? In Nutrition, diet and cancer. Shankar S, Srivastava RK eds. (Houten, Netherlands; springer), pp. 459-491, 2012.
  162. Kumar V, Thakur AK, Barothia ND, Chatterjee SS. Therapeutic potentials of Brassica juncea: An overview. TANG (Humanitas Medicine). 2011a;1:1-17.
  163. Kumudhavalli MV, Mohit V, Jayakar B. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of the plant fruit of Terminalia belerica roxb. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2010;1:1-11.
  164. Kuo CC, Moon K, Thayer KA, Navas-Acien A. Environmental chemicals and type 2 diabetes: An updated systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13:831-849.
  165. Kuo CP, Lu CH, Wen LL, Cherng CH, Wong CS, Borel CO, Ju DT, Chen CM, Wu CT. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:1229-1238.
  166. Kuroda M, Mimaki Y, Nishiyama T, Mae T, Kishida H, Tsukagawa M, Takahashi K, Kawada T, Nakagawa K, Kitahara M. Hypoglycemic effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa l. Rhizomes) on genetically diabetic kk-ay mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:937-939.
  167. Kwon DY, Kim HJ, Yoon SH. Induction of phenolics and terpenoids in edible plants using plant stress responses. In Biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology. Hou CT, Shaw JF eds. (New York, USA; CRC Press), pp. 249-0258, 2009.
  168. Langstieh AJ, Verma P, Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Desensitization of mild stress triggered responses in mice by a Brassica juncea Leaf extract and some ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites. Pharmacologia. 2014;5:326-338.
  169. Lao CD, Ruffin MTt, Normolle D, Heath DD, Murray SI, Bailey JM, Boggs ME, Crowell J, Rock CL, renner DE. Dose escalation of a curcuminoid formulation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006;6:10.
  170. Le Bourg E, Rattan SI. Hormesis and trade-offs: A comment. Dose Response. 2014;12:522-524.
  171. Lee HE, Kim DH, Park SJ, Kim JM, Lee YW, Jung JM, Lee CH, Hong JG, Liu X, Cai M, Park KJ, Jang DS, Ryu JH. Neuroprotective effect of sinapic acid in a mouse model of amyloid beta(1-42) protein-induced alzheimer's disease. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;103:260-266.
  172. Lee J, Jo DG, Park D, Chung HY, Mattson MP. Adaptive cellular stress pathways as therapeutic targets of dietary phytochemicals: Focus on the nervous system. Pharmacol Rev. 2014;66:815-868.
  173. Lee SA, Hwang JS, Han XH, Lee C, Lee MH, Choe SG, Hong SS, Lee D, Lee MK, Hwang BY. Methylpiperate derivatives from Piper longum and their inhibition of monoamine oxidase. Arch Pharm Res. 2008;31:679-683.
  174. Lee SW, Rho MC, Park HR, Choi JH, Kang JY, Lee JW, Kim K, Lee HS, Kim YK. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and piper nigrum. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9759-9763.
  175. Leiherer A, Mundlein A, Drexel H. Phytochemicals and their impact on adipose tissue inflammation and diabetes. Vascul Pharmacol. 2013;58:3-20.
  176. Lekshmi PC, Arimboor R, Indulekha PS, Menon AN. Turmeric (Curcuma longa l.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:832-834.
  177. Lephart ED. Polyphenols and cognitive function. In Diet and exercise in cognitive function and neurological diseases. Farooqui T, Farooqui AA eds. (Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; ohn Wiley & Sons, Inc), pp. 143-161, 2015.
  178. Li J, Ho C-T, Li HE, Tao H, Tao L. Separation of sterols and triterpene alcohols from unsaponifiable fractions of three plant seed oils. J Food Lipids. 2000;7:11-20.
  179. Li S, Wang C, Li W, Koike K, Nikaido T, Wang MW. Antidepressant-like effects of piperine and its derivative, antiepilepsirine. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007a;9:421-430.
  180. Li S, Wang C, Wang M, Li W, Matsumoto K, Tang Y. Antidepressant like effects of piperine in chronic mild stress treated mice and its possible mechanisms. Life Sci. 2007b;80(15):1373-1381.
  181. Li S, Yuan W, Deng G, Wang P, Yang P, Aggarwal BB. Chemical composition and product quality control of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Phytochemistry. 2011;2:28-54.
  182. Liju VB, Jeena K, Kuttan R. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L). Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;53:52-61.
  183. Liju VB, Jeena K, Kuttan R. An evaluation of antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antinociceptive activities of essential oil from Curcuma longa. L. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011;4:526-531.
  184. Lin Y, Sun Z. Current views on type 2 diabetes. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:1-11.
  185. Liu J-Y, Chen X-X, Tang SC-W, Lao L-X, Cho-Wing Sze S, Lee K-F, Zhang KY-B. Edible plants from traditional chinese medicine is a promising alternative for the management of diabetic nephropathy. J Func Foods. 2015;14:12-22.
  186. Liu Z, Yu Y, Li X, Ross CA, Smith WW. Curcumin protects against a53t alpha-synuclein-induced toxicity in a pc12 inducible cell model for parkinsonism. Pharmacol Res. 2011;63:439-444.
  187. Lopresti AL, Maes M, Maker GL, Hood SD, Drummond PD. Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2014;167:368-375.
  188. Lushchak VI. Dissection of the hormetic curve: Analysis of components and mechanisms. Dose Response. 2014a;12:466-479.
  189. Lushchak VI. Hormesis in biology and pharmacology. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014b;3:1-2.
  190. Madhu K, Chanda K, Saji MJ. Safety and efficacy of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of painful knee osteoarthritis: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Inflammopharmacology. 2013;21:129-136.
  191. Maheshwari M. Comparative bioavailability of curcumin, turmeric and $biocurcumax^{TM}$ in traditional vehicles using noneverted rat intestinal sac model. J Func Foods. 2010;2:60-65.
  192. Maheshwari RK, Rajnee K. Ingenious triphala: A curative preparation for health care. Asian J Chem Pharm Res. 2014;2:175 -185.
  193. Manach C, Hubert J, Llorach R, Scalbert A. The complex links between dietary phytochemicals and human health deciphered by metabolomics. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:1303-1315.
  194. Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L. Polyphenols: Food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:727-747.
  195. Maneesa P, Scholfield CN, Chootip K. Piperine is antihyperlipidemic and improves endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rats on a high cholesterol diet. J Physiol Biomed Sci. 2012;25:27-30.
  196. Manesh C, Kuttan G. Anti-tumour and anti-oxidant activity of naturally occurring isothiocyanates. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003;22:193-199.
  197. Manohar PR, Pushpan R, Rohini S. Mustard and its uses in ayurveda. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2009;8:400-404.
  198. Manoj P, Soniya EV, Banerjee NS, Ravichandran P. Recent studies on well-known spice, Piper longum Linn. Nat Prod Radiance. 2004;3:222-227.
  199. Mao QQ, Huang Z, Zhong XM, Xian YF, Ip SP. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling mediates the antidepressant-like effect of piperine in chronically stressed mice. Behav Brain Res. 2014;261:140-145.
  200. Martinez JA, Milagro FI. Genetics of weight loss: A basis for personalized obesity management. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2015;42:97-115.
  201. Martinez JA, Navas-Carretero S, Saris WH, Astrup A. Personalized weight loss strategies-the role of macronutrient distribution. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10:749-760.
  202. Mayer EA. Gut feelings: The emerging biology of gut-brain communication. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011;12:453-466.
  203. McClure CD, Zhong W, Hunt VL, Chapman FM, Hill FV, Priest NK. Hormesis results in trade-offs with immunity.Evolution. 2014;68:2225-2233.
  204. McFadden RMT, Larmonier CB, Midura-Kiela MT, Ramalingam R, Harrison CA, Besselsen DG, Chase J, Caporaso G, Ghishan FK, Kiela PR. The role of curcumin in modulating colonic microbiota during colitis and colon cancer prevention. Gastroenterology. 2014;146:S66.
  205. McNamara FN, Randall A, Gunthorpe MJ. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (trpv1). Br J Pharmacol. 2005;144:781-790.
  206. Meghwal M, Goswami TK. Piper nigrum and piperine: An update. Phytother Res. 2013;27:1121-1130.
  207. Meule A, Heckel D, Jurowich CF, Vogele C, Kubler A. Correlates of food addiction in obese individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Clin Obes. 2014;4:228-236.
  208. Micucci M, Aldini R, Cevenini M, Colliva C, Spinozzi S, Roda G, Montagnani M, Camborata C, Camarda L, Chiarini A, Mazzella G, Budriesi R. Curcuma longa l. As a therapeutic agent in intestinal motility disorders. 2: Safety profile in mouse. PLoS One. 2013;8:e80925.
  209. Mirmiran P, Bahadoran Z, Azizi F. Functional foods-based diet as a novel dietary approach for management of type 2 diabetes and its complications: A review. World J Diabetes. 2014;5:267-281.
  210. Mishra S, Manchanda SC. Cooking oils for heart health. J Prev Cardiol. 2012;1:123-131.
  211. Mohammad K, Larijani B. A systematic review of the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects and safety of triphala herbal formulation. J Med Plants Res. 2013;7:831-844.
  212. Moloney RD, Desbonnet L, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. The microbiome: Stress, health and disease. Mamm Genome. 2014;25:49-74.
  213. Mori A, Kabuto H, Pei YQ. Effects of piperine on convulsions and on brain serotonin and catecholamine levels in e1 mice. Neurochem Res. 1985;10:1269-1275.
  214. Munday R, Munday CM. Selective induction of phase ii enzymes in the urinary bladder of rats by allyl isothiocyanate, a compound derived from brassica vegetables. Nutr Cancer. 2002;44:52-59.
  215. Murray S, Kroll C, Avena NM. Food and addiction among the ageing population. Ageing Res Rev. 2015;20:79-85.
  216. Murthy KRS. Bhava prakasha of bhavamisra-english translation. (Varanasi, India; Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academy), 2009.
  217. Muttepawar SS, Jadhav SB, Kankudate AD, Sanghai SD, Usturge DR, Chavare SS. A review on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:667-677.
  218. Nabi SA, Kasetti RB, Sirasanagandla S, Tilak TK, Kumar MV, Rao CA. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:37.
  219. Nariya MB, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B, Jain SM. Comparison of gastroprotective effects of triphala formulations on stressinduced ulcer in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011;73:682-687.
  220. Neerati P, Ravi Karan M, Kanwar JR. Influence of curcumin on pioglitazone metabolism and pk/pd: Diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab. 2012;S6:1-6.
  221. Neha J, Mishra RN. Adaptogenic activity of Trikatu megaExt. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2011;2:570-574.
  222. Nicholson JK, Holmes E, Kinross J, Burcelin R, Gibson G, Jia W, Pettersson S. Host-gut microbiota metabolic interactions. Science. 2012;336:1262-1267.
  223. Niciforovic N, Abramovic H. Sinapic acid and its derivatives: Natural sources and bioactivity. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2014;13:34-51.
  224. Noble T, Zingg JM, Paul L, Smith D, Meydani M. The effect of curcumin plus piperine on body weight and fat loss as well as on the plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice. FASEB J. 2013;27:636.
  225. Nowak D. Antioxidant plant polyphenols and cognitive disorders. In Studies on psychiatric disorders. Dietrich-Muszalska A, Chauhan V, Grignon S eds. (New York, USA; Springer), pp. 521-552, 2015.
  226. Nyanginja RA, Mponda J. Nutrigenomic approach in understanding the antiallergic effects of curcumin. Asian J Biomed Pharma Sci. 2014;4:1-5.
  227. Ono K, Hasegawa K, Naiki H, Yamada M. Curcumin has potent anti-amyloidogenic effects for alzheimer's beta-amyloid fibrils in vitro. J Neurosci Res. 2004;75:742-750.
  228. Oram RN, Kirk JTO, Veness PE, Hurlstone CJ, Edlington JP, Halsall DM. Breeding indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) czern.] for cold-pressed, edible oil production-a review. Australian J Agric Res. 2005;56:581-596.
  229. Ozcan U, Cao Q, Yilmaz E, Lee AH, Iwakoshi NN, Ozdelen E, Tuncman G, Gorgun C, Glimcher LH, Hotamisligil GS. Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes. Science. 2004;306:457-461.
  230. Pa J, Gazzaley A. Flavanol-rich food for thought. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1624-1625.
  231. Pal A, Nayak S, Sahu PK, Swain T. Piperine protects epilepsy associated depression: A study on role of monoamines. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:1288-1295.
  232. Pal US, Khan K, Sahoo NR, Sahoo G. Development and evaluation of farm level turmeric processing equipment. AMA. 2008;39:46-50 .
  233. Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, Hu ZX, Lin J, Xiao JZ, Cao HB, Liu PA, Jiang XG, Jiang YY, Wang JP, Zheng H, Zhang H, Bennett PH, Howard BV. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing niddm in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The da qing igt and diabetes study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:537-544.
  234. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2:270-278.
  235. Parrott MD, Winocur G, Bazinet RP, Ma DW, Greenwood CE. Whole-food diet worsened cognitive dysfunction in an alzheimer's disease mouse model. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:90-99.
  236. Patel D, Patel K, Gadewar M, Tahilyani V. A concise report on pharmacological and bioanalytical aspect of sinigrin. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2:S446-S448.
  237. Patel JA, Shah US. Hepatoprotective activity of Piper longum traditional milk extract on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in wistar rats. Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromaticas. 2009;8:121-129.
  238. Patel P, Gohil KJ, Roy SP, Patel N. Investigation of antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of curcumin given alone and in combination with amitriptyline in rats. Indian J Res Pharm Biotechnol. 2014;2:1173-1178.
  239. Pathak N, Khandelwal S. Immunomodulatory role of piperine in cadmium induced thymic atrophy and splenomegaly in mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;28:52-60.
  240. Pati S, Hussain M, Swain S. Characteristics and correlates of diabesity in india: A secondary data analysis of world health survey. Obes Rev. 2014;15:67-68.
  241. Patil UK, Singh A, Chakraborty AK. Role of piperine as a bioavailability enhancer. Int J Recent Adv Pharm Res. 2011;4:16-23.
  242. Patrone C, Eriksson O, Lindholm D. Diabetes drugs and neurological disorders: New views and therapeutic possibilities. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2:256-262.
  243. Pedram P, Sun G. Hormonal and dietary characteristics in obese human subjects with and without food addiction. Nutrients. 2015;7:223-238.
  244. Peng D, Xin L, Hao-jie L, Wei-feng P, Jian-ying L, Yu M, Wei F, Xin W. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats. Chin Med J. 2009;122:1435-1438.
  245. Perez-Tilve D, Davidson WS, Tschop M, Hofmann SM. Cns regulation of plasma cholesterol. Ann Med. 2012;44:656-663.
  246. Podar D, Ramsey MH, Hutchings MJ. Effect of cadmium, zinc and substrate heterogeneity on yield, shoot metal concentration and metal uptake by Brassica juncea: Implications for human health risk assessment and phytoremediation. New Phytologist. 2004;163:313-324.
  247. Ponnusamy S, Zinjarde S, Bhargava S, Kumar AR. Role of Curcuma longa, a traditional ayurvedic medicinal plant, in diabetes. TANG (Humanitas Medicine). 2012;2:5-11.
  248. Ponnusankar S, Pandit S, Babu R, Bandyopadhyay A, Mukherjee PK. Cytochrome p450 inhibitory potential of triphala-a rasayana from ayurveda. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133:120-125.
  249. Pratley RE, Matfin G. Pre‐1diabetes: Clinical relevance and therapeutic approach. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis. 2007;7:120-:129.
  250. Priyadarsini KI. The chemistry of curcumin: From extraction to therapeutic agent. Molecules. 2014;19:20091-20112.
  251. Puranik A, Nabar N, Joshi J, Amonkar A, Shah S, Menon S, Vaidya R, Vaidya ADB. Single dose metformin kinetics after co-administration of nisha-amalaki powder or mamejwa ghanavati, ayurvedic anti-diabetic formulations: A randomized crossover study in healthy volunteers. J Obes Metab Res. 2014;1:99-104.
  252. Qin XY, Cheng Y, Yu LC. Potential protection of curcumin against intracellular amyloid beta-induced toxicity in cultured rat prefrontal cortical neurons. Neurosci Lett. 2010;480:21-24.
  253. Qureshi S, Shah AH, Ageel AM. Toxicity studies on alpinia galanga and Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 1992;58:124-127.
  254. Rajan SS, Antony S. Hypoglycemic effect of triphala on selected non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. Anc Sci Life. 2008;27:45-49.
  255. Rajeswary H, Vasuki R, Samudram P, Geetha A. Hepatoprotective action of ethanolic extracts of melia azedarach linn. And Piper longum Linn and their combination on ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49:276-281.
  256. Rajopadhye AA, Namjoshi TP, Upadhye AS. Rapid validated hptlc method for estimation of piperine and piperlongumine in root of Piper longum extract and its commercial formulation. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2012;22:1355-1361.
  257. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V, Indian Diabetes Prevention P. The indian diabetes prevention programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in asian indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (idpp-1). Diabetologia. 2006;49:289-297.
  258. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Shetty AS, Nanditha A. Trends in prevalence of diabetes in asian countries. World J Diabetes. 2012;3:110-117.
  259. Rao G, Bhat S, Rao GS, Bhat GP. Antidiabetic and antioxidant efficacy of a powdered mixture of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis in diabetic rats in comparison with glyburide. WebmedCentral Diabetes. 2013;4:1-13.
  260. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants, vol. 4. (New Delhi, India; Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR), 1995.
  261. Rastogi S. Ayurvedic science of food and nutrition. (New York, USA; Springer ), 2014.
  262. Rastogi T, Reddy KS, Vaz M, Spiegelman D, Prabhakaran D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A. Diet and risk of ischemic heart disease in india. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:582-592.
  263. Rathinamoorthy R, Thilagavathi G. Terminalia chebula-review on pharmacological and biochemical studies. Int J PharmTech Res. 2014;6:97-116.
  264. Rauniyar BK, Shakya A, Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Anti-stress activity of phloroglucinol: A transient metabolite of some plant polyphenolics. Pharmacologia. 2015;6:21-30.
  265. Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in ayurvedic medicine. Phytother Res. 1999;13:275-291.<275::AID-PTR510>3.0.CO;2-S
  266. Rhee SH, Pothoulakis C, Mayer EA. Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6:306-314.
  267. Rinki S, Mishra RN. Adaptogenic activity of triphala megaext. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci. 2011;2:579-582.
  268. Rios MY, Olivo HF. Chapter 3 - natural and synthetic alkamides: Applications in pain therapy. In Studies in natural products chemistry. Atta ur $R^{ed}$. (Oxford, UK: Elsevier), pp. 79-121, 2014.
  269. Roy SJ, Stanely Mainzen Prince P. Protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:3984-3989.
  270. Ruden D, Lu X. Personalized nutrigenomics: Tailoring the diet to the aging diabesity population. Nutr Diet Suppl. 2011;3:31-41.
  271. Sahebkar A. Why it is necessary to translate curcumin into clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome? Biofactors. 2013;39:197-208.
  272. Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of Terminalia chebula retz. Fruit. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:327-336.
  273. Samudram P, Vasuki, R., Rajeshwari, H., Geetha, A., Moorthi, P.S. Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of ethanolic crude extract of melia azedarach and Piper longum. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3:1078-1083.
  274. Sandoval DA, Obici S, Seeley RJ. Targeting the cns to treat type 2 diabetes. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2009;8:386-398.
  275. Sang JP, Minchinton IR, Johnstone PK, Truscott RJ. Glucosinolates profiles in the seed, root and leaf tissue of cabbage, mustard, rapeseed, radish and swede. Can J Plant Sci. 1984;64:77-93.
  276. Sanmukhani J, Anovadiya A, Tripathi CB. Evaluation of antidepressant like activity of curcumin and its combination with fluoxetine and imipramine: An acute and chronic study. Acta Pol Pharm. 2011;68:769-775.
  277. Santilli F, Guagnano MT, Vazzana N, La Barba S, Davi G. Oxidative stress drivers and modulators in obesity and cardiovascular disease: From biomarkers to therapeutic approach. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22:582-595.
  278. Sarma GK, Kalita P, Barthakur M, Sarma RK. Importance of traditionally used medicinal plants: Emblica officinalis (L), Curcuma longa (L) & Syzygium cumini (L) in the management of diabetes mellitus. Int Ayurvedic Med J. 2014;2:356-361.
  279. Sauer FD, Kramer JKG. The problems associated with the feeding of high erucic acid rapeseed oils and some fish oils to experimental animals. In High and low erucic acid rapeseed oils production, usage, chemistry, and toxicological examination. Kramer JKG, Sauer FD, Pigden WJ eds. (Toronto, Canada; Academic Press), pp. 253-n292, 1983.
  280. Saxena V, Mishra G, Vishwakarma KK, Saxena A. A comparative study on quantitative estimation of tannins in Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna and saraca indica using spectrophotometer. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013;6:1-2.
  281. Scapagnini G, Davinelli S, Kaneko T, Koverech G, Koverech A, Calabrese EJ, Calabrese V. Dose response biology of resveratrol in obesity. J Cell Commun Signal. 2014;8:385-391.
  282. Schreiner M, Krumbein A, Ruppel S. Interaction between plants and bacteria: Glucosinolates and phyllospheric colonization of cruciferous vegetables by enterobacter radicincitans dsm 16656. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17:124-135.
  283. Scott C, Johnstone AM. Stress and eating behaviour: Implications for obesity. Obes Facts. 2012;5:277-287.
  284. Serrano J, Puupponen-Pimia R, Dauer A, Aura AM, Saura-Calixto F. Tannins: Current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:S310-329.
  285. Shakya A, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Role of fumarates in adaptogenics like efficacies of traditionally used fumaria indica extracts. TANG (Humanitas Medicine). 2015;5:28-37
  286. Sharma H, Chandola HM. Prameha in ayurveda: Correlation with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Part 1-etiology, classification, and pathogenesis. J Altern Complement Med. 2011a;17:491-496.
  287. Sharma H, Chandola HM. Prameha in ayurveda: Correlation with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Part 2-management of prameha. J Altern Complement Med. 2011b;17:589-599.
  288. Shin DS, Kim KW, Chung HY, Yoon S, Moon JO. Effect of sinapic acid against dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36:608-618.
  289. Shin HJ, Lee JY, Son E, Lee DH, Kim HJ, Kang SS, Cho GJ, Choi WS, Roh GS. Curcumin attenuates the kainic acidinduced hippocampal cell death in the mice. Neuroscience Letters. 2007;416:49-54.
  290. Shivavedi N, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Evaluation of pharmacologically interesting dose range of ascorbic acid in mice. SAJ Neurol. 2014a;1:101.
  291. Shivavedi N, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Stress response modulating effects of lactic acid in mice. Ther Targets Neurol Dis. 2014b;1:e418.
  292. Shoba G, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Planta Med. 1998;64:353-356.
  293. Sims EA, Danforth E, Jr., Horton ES, Bray GA, Glennon JA, Salans LB. Endocrine and metabolic effects of experimental obesity in man. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1973;29:457-496.
  294. Sindhu S, Maya P, Indira TN. A method for preparation of mustard (Brassica juncea) powder with retained pungency and reduced bitterness. LWT - Food Sci Tech. 2012;49:42-47.
  295. Singh J, Sharma PC, Sharma SK, Kumar A. Standardization of the fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for estimation of some oil quality parameters in mustard (brassica spp.). Plant Soil Environ. 2013;59:478-483.
  296. Singh K, Shakya R, Mahawar R. Genetic diversity and patterns of variation among Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (l.) czernj. & cosson) varieties. SABRAO J Breed Genet. 2014b;46:329-339.
  297. Singh N, Kumar S, Singh P, Raj HG, Prasad AK, Parmar VS, Ghosh B. Piper longum Linn. Extract inhibits tnf-alphainduced expression of cell adhesion molecules by inhibiting nfkappab activation and microsomal lipid peroxidation. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:284-291.
  298. Singh R, Arif T, Khan I, Sharma P. Phytochemicals in antidiabetic drug discovery. J Biomed Ther Sci. 2014a;1:1-33.
  299. Sinha R, Jastreboff AM. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2013;73:827-835.
  300. Soni KB, Rajan A, Kuttan R. Reversal of aflatoxin induced liver damage by turmeric and curcumin. Cancer Lett. 1992;66:115-121.
  301. Speciale A, Chirafisi J, Saija A, Cimino F. Nutritional antioxidants and adaptive cell responses: An update. Curr Mol Med. 2011;11:770-789.
  302. Sri KS, Kumari DJ, Sivannarayana G. Effect of amla, an approach towards the control of diabetes mellitus. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013;2:103-108.
  303. Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Narayanan GS, Sheeladevi R. Effect of triphala on oxidative stress and on cellmediated immune response against noise stress in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;28:67-74.
  304. Steptoe A, Hackett RA, Lazzarino AI, Bostock S, La Marca R, Carvalho LA, Hamer M. Disruption of multisystem responses to stress in type 2 diabetes: Investigating the dynamics of allostatic load. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:15693-15698.
  305. Sunila ES, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Piper longum Linn. And piperine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90:339-346.
  306. Suri A, Szallasi A. The emerging role of trpv1 in diabetes and obesity. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2008;29:29-36.
  307. Szallasi A. Piperine: Researchers discover new flavor in an ancient spice. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005;26:437-439.
  308. Tarozzi A, Angeloni C, Malaguti M, Morroni F, Hrelia S, Hrelia P. Sulforaphane as a potential protective phytochemical against neurodegenerative diseases. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:415078.
  309. Tatiraju DV, Bagade VB, Karambelkar PJ, Jadhav VM, Kadam V. Natural bioenhancers: An overview. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013;2:55-60.
  310. Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Antidepressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. Leaves in diabetic rodents. Indian J Exp Biol. 2014a;52:613-622.
  311. Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Anxiolytic-like activity of leaf extract of traditionally used Indian-mustard (Brassica juncea) in diabetic rats. TANG (Humanitas Medicine). 2013b;3:1-7.
  312. Thakur AK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Beneficial effects of Brassica juncea on cognitive functions in rats. Pharm Biol. 2013a;51:1304-1310.
  313. Thakur AK, Shakya A, Husain GM, Emerald M, Kumar V. Gut-microbiota and mental health: Current and future perspectives. J Pharmacol Clin Toxicol. 2014b;2:1016.1-1016.15.
  314. Thiyagarajan M, Sharma SS. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin in middle cerebral artery occlusion induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Life Sci. 2004;74:969-985.
  315. Thomas M, Sujatha KS, George S. Protective effect of Piper longum Linn. On monosodium glutamate induced oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009;47:186-192.
  316. Tiwari AK, Rao JM. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: Present status and future prospects. Curr Sci. 2002;83:30-38.
  317. Tiwari AK. Invigorated barley in diabetes. Curr Sci. 2008;95:25-29.
  318. Tomas-Menor L, Barrajon-Catalan E, Segura-Carretero A, Marti N, Saura D, Menendez JA, Joven J, Micol V. The promiscuous and synergic molecular interaction of polyphenols in bactericidal activity: An opportunity to improve the performance of antibiotics? Phytother Res. 2015;29:466-473.
  319. Triggle DJ. Nous sommes tous des bacteries: Implications for medicine, pharmacology and public health. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:1543-1550.
  320. Tripathi MK, Mishra AS. Glucosinolates in animal nutrition: a review. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 2007;132:1-27.
  321. Tripathi S, Raghuram N, Ramarao NH. Validation of an integrated ayurveda-yoga module for residential treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a compilation from traditional literature. Int J Ayurvedic Herbal Med. 2012;2:921-934.
  322. Trowbridge A. The evolutionary ecology of chemically mediated plant-insect interactions. In Ecology and the environment. Monson RK ed. (New York, USA: Springer ), pp. 1-29, 2014.
  323. Tschop MH, DiMarchi RD. Outstanding scientific achievement award lecture 2011: Defeating diabesity: The case for personalized combinatorial therapies. Diabetes. 2012;61:1309-1314.
  324. Ulbricht C, Basch E, Barrette E-P, Boon H, Chao W, Costa D, Higdon ERB, Isaac R, Lynch M, Papaliodis G, Grimes Serrano JM, Varghese M, Vora M, Windsor R, Woods J. Turmeric (Curcuma longa): An evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Altern Complement Ther. 2011;17:225-236.
  325. Vaghasiya Y, Nair R, Chanda S. Investigation of piper species for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory property. Int J Pharmacol. 2007;3:400-:405.
  326. Vaibhavi B, Satyam T, Sanjibkumar P, Raghuram N, Ramarao NH. Effect of holistic module of yoga and ayurvedic panchakarma in type 2 diabetes mellitus-a pilot study. Open J Endocr Metab Dis. 2013;3:90-98.
  327. Vaidya AD. Metabolic management: The role of nutraceuticals, nutritionals and naturals. J Obes Metab Res. 2014;1:79-82.
  328. Vaiserman AM. Aging-modulating treatments: From reductionism to a system-oriented perspective. Front Genet. 2014;5:446.
  329. van Duynhoven J, Vaughan EE, Jacobs DM, Kemperman RA, van Velzen EJ, Gross G, Roger LC, Possemiers S, Smilde AK, Dore J, Westerhuis JA, Van de Wiele T. Metabolic fate of polyphenols in the human superorganism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2011;108 :4531-4538.
  330. van Ommen B, Stierum R. Nutrigenomics: Exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arena. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002;13:517-521.
  331. Vedhanayaki G, Shastri GV, Kuruvilla A. Analgesic activity of Piper longum Linn. Root. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41:649-651.
  332. Velusami CC, Boddapati SR, Hongasandra Srinivasa S, Richard EJ, Joseph JA, Balasubramanian M, Agarwal A. Safety evaluation of turmeric polysaccharide extract: Assessment of mutagenicity and acute oral toxicity. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:158348.
  333. Venkateshwarlu G, Venkata NCH, Shantha TR, Kishore KR, Prathapa RM, Raghavendra HL. A comparative physicochemical and pharmacognostical evaluation of nishamalaki- an ayurvedic antidiabetic formulation. Sci Tech Arts Res J. 2013;2:69-78.
  334. Verma S, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Comparative adaptogenic activity of bioavailable extracts of Curcuma longa and pure curcumin in rodents (NEU-22). Indian J Pharmacol. 2014;46:S93-S94.
  335. Verma S, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Metformin like stress response modulating effects of turmeric curcuminoids in mice. SAJ Neurol. 2015;1:102.
  336. Wakade AS, Shah AS, Kulkarni MP, Juvekar AR. Protective effect of Piper longum L. On oxidative stress induced injury and cellular abnormality in adriamycin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46:528-533.
  337. Walia H, Arora S. Terminalia chebula- a pharmacognistic account. J Med Plants Res. 2013;7:1351-1361.
  338. Wang HH, Hsieh HL, Wu CY, Sun CC, Yang CM. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via a p42/p44 and jnk-dependent ap-1 pathway in brain astrocytes. Glia. 2009;57:24-38.
  339. Wang MS, Boddapati S, Emadi S, Sierks MR. Curcumin reduces alpha-synuclein induced cytotoxicity in parkinson's disease cell model. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:57.
  340. Wang S, Moustaid-Moussa N, Chen L, Mo H, Shastri A, Su R, Bapat P, Kwun I, Shen CL. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity. J Nutr Biochem. 2014;25:1-18.
  341. Wang Y, Tang H. Roles of herbal medicine in modulating gut microbiota associated with health and diseases. In Metabonomics and gut microbiota in nutrition and disease. Kochhar S, Martin F-P eds. (London, EK; Springer), pp. 185-197, 2015.
  342. Wendlinger C, Hammann S, Vetter W. Various concentrations of erucic acid in mustard oil and mustard. Food Chem. 2014;153:393-397.
  343. Winston D, Maimes S. Adaptogens: Herbs for strength, stamina, and stress relief. (Vermont, USA; Healing Arts Press), 2007.
  344. Wu Y, Min X, Zhuang C, Li J, Yu Z, Dong G, Yao J, Wang S, Liu Y, Wu S, Zhu S, Sheng C, Wei Y, Zhang H, Zhang W, Miao Z. Design, synthesis and biological activity of piperlongumine derivatives as selective anticancer agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2014;82:545-551.
  345. Xia X, Cheng G, Pan Y, Xia ZH, Kong LD. Behavioral, neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of the ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa L. In the mouse forced swimming test. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;110:356-363.
  346. Xia X, Pan Y, Ou-Yang Z, Wang J, Pan L-L, Zhu Q, Huang J-J, Kong L-D. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of monoamine oxidase a inhibitory activity and behavior improvement by curcumin in the mouse forced swimming test. Chin J Nat Med. 2011;9:293-304.
  347. Xia X, Pan Y, Zhang WY, Cheng G, Kong LD. Ethanolic extracts from Curcuma longa attenuates behavioral, immune, and neuroendocrine alterations in a rat chronic mild stress model. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:938-944.
  348. Xiao JB, Hogger P. Dietary polyphenols and type 2 diabetes: Current insights and future perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22:23-38.
  349. Xu Y, Ku BS, Yao HY, Lin YH, Ma X, Zhang YH, Li XJ. Antidepressant effects of curcumin in the forced swim test and olfactory bulbectomy models of depression in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;82:200-206.
  350. Yadav SP, Vats V, Ammini AC, Grover JK. Brassica juncea (rai) significantly prevented the development of insulin resistance in rats fed fructose-enriched diet. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;93:113-116.
  351. Yadav V, Kumar, V. Advances in modern knowledge of dravyaguna of Piper longum during last five years (REV-15). Indian J Pharmacol. 2014;4:S109.
  352. Yang C, Zhang X, Fan H, Liu Y. Curcumin upregulates transcription factor nrf2, ho-1 expression and protects rat brains against focal ischemia. Brain Res. 2009;1282:133-141.
  353. Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, Ubeda OJ, Simmons MR, Ambegaokar SS, Chen PP, Kayed R, Glabe CG, Frautschy SA, Cole GM. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5892-5901.
  354. Yang J, Su Y, Luo J-F, Gu W, Niu H-M, Li Y, Wang Y-H, Long C-L. New amide alkaloids from Piper longum fruits. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2013;3:277-281.
  355. Yang T, Sun S, Wang T, Tong X, Bi J, Wang Y, Sun Z. Piperlonguminine is neuroprotective in experimental rat stroke. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014;23:447-451.
  356. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Cho EJ, Choi JS, Chung HY. Antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin 3,7-di-o-beta-dglucopyranoside isolated from mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:5490-5495.
  357. Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Cho EJ, Yamabi N, Choi JS. Protective effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) against diabetic oxidative stress. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2003;49:87-93.
  358. Yoon BH, Jung JW, Lee JJ, Cho YW, Jang CG, Jin C, Oh TH, Ryu JH. Anxiolytic-like effects of sinapic acid in mice. Life Sci. 2007;81:234-240.
  359. Yu JC, Jiang ZT, Li R, Chan SM. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Brassica juncea (L.) coss. Grown in different regions, hebei, shaanxi and shandong, of china. J Food Drug Anal. 2003;11:22-26.
  360. Yu SY, Gao R, Zhang L, Luo J, Jiang H, Wang S. Curcumin ameliorates ethanol-induced memory deficits and enhanced brain nitric oxide synthase activity in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013;44:210-216.
  361. Yu ZF, Kong LD, Chen Y. Antidepressant activity of aqueous extracts of Curcuma longa in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83:161-165.
  362. Zaki M, Begum W, Bhat TA, Kausar H. Amla (Emblica officinalis gaertn) the wonderful unani drug: A review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:1369-1381.
  363. Zaveri M, Khandhar A, Patel S, A. P. Chemistry and pharmacology of Piper longum L. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2010;5:67-76.
  364. Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, Liu JL. Curcumin and diabetes: A systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013:636053.
  365. Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I. Phyllanemblinins a-f, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:1527-1532.
  366. Zhao L, Ackerman SL. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in health and disease. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2006;18:444-452.