DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Effects of Information and Predisposition on Individual Responses to Hypothetical Survey Questions

  • Published : 2015.02.28

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of information and predisposition on individual responses to hypothetical questions. By employing the empirical implications of theoretical models (EITM) framework, I confirm that information and predisposition have positive effects on individual substantive responses to the hypothetical questions about the independence-unification issue in Taiwan. Respondents with higher levels of information and predisposition are more likely to provide substantive responses. More importantly, information and predisposition exert a negative interaction effect on individual responses to hypothetical questions, which implies that when an individual counts more on information to respond to hypothetical questions, her predisposition plays a less important role in her responses and vice versa. Finally, this study suggests that hypothetical questions are effective to probe individual opinion on specific issues under hypothetical conditions.

References

  1. Achen, C. H. (1975). Mass political attitudes and the survey response. American Political Science Review, 69(4), 1218-1231. https://doi.org/10.2307/1955282
  2. Althaus, S. L. (1998). Information effects in collective preferences. American Political Science Review, 92(3), 545-558. https://doi.org/10.2307/2585480
  3. Bartels, L. M. (1996). Uninformed votes: Information effects in presidential elections. American Journal of Political Science, 40(1), 194-230. https://doi.org/10.2307/2111700
  4. Bennett, S. E. (1989). Trends in Americans' political information, 1967-1987. American Politics Research, 17(4), 422-435. https://doi.org/10.1177/004478089017004005
  5. Benson, J. M. (1982). The polls: U.S. military intervention. Public Opinion Quarterly, 46(4), 592-598. https://doi.org/10.1086/268757
  6. Blais, A. & Achen, C. H. (2011). Taking civic duty seriously: Political theory and voter turnout, Retrieved from http://www.princeton.edu/csdp/events/Achen031110/Achen031110.pdf
  7. Chen, K. Y.-N., & Lo, V.-H. (2006). Media use and political capital. Mass Communication Research, 88, 83-134.
  8. Converse, P. (1964). The nature of belief systems in mass publics, In D. Apter (Ed.), Ideology and discontent (pp.206-261). New York: Free Press.
  9. Delli Carpini, M. X., & Keeter, S. (1993). Measuring political knowledge: Putting first things first. American Journal of Political Science, 37(4), 1179-1206. https://doi.org/10.2307/2111549
  10. Delli Carpini, M. X., & Keeter, S. (1996). What Americans know about politics and why it matters. London: Yale University Press.
  11. Galleg, A. (2014). Unequal political participation worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  12. Ganzach, Y. (1997). Misleading interaction and curvilinear terms. Psychological Methods, 2(3), 235-247. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.2.3.235
  13. Gilens, M. (2001). Political ignorance and collective policy preferences. American Political Science Review, 95(2), 379-396.
  14. Granato, J., Lo, M., & Wong, M. C. S. (2010). A framework for unifying formal and empirical analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 54(3), 783-797. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00460.x
  15. Groves, R. M., Fowler, F. J., Jr., Couper, Mick P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2009). Survey Methodology Hoboken: Wiley.
  16. Hawang, S.-D.. & Chou, S.-C. (1996). Changes in the political attitudes of Taiwan women, 1983-1992. Wenti Yu Yanjiu, 35(10), 71-95.
  17. Highton, B. (2009). Revisiting the relationship between educational attainment and political sophistication. Journal of Politics, 71(4), 1564-1576. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381609990077
  18. Jerit, J., & Barabas, J. (2006). How misleading information affects knowledge about social security. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70(3), 278-303. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfl010
  19. Kinder, D. R. & Sears, D. O. (1985). Public opinion and political action, In G. Lindzey, & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. II (pp. 659-741). New York: Random House.
  20. Krosnick, J. A. (1990) Expertise and political psychology. Social Cognition, 8(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1990.8.1.1
  21. Lambert, R. D., Curtis, J. E., Kay, B. J., & Brown, S. D. (1988). The social sources of political knowledge. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 21(2), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900056341
  22. Liao, T. F. (1994). Interpreting probability models: Logit, probit, and other generalized linear models. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  23. Luskin, R. C. (1987). Measuring political sophistication. American Journal of Political Science, 31(4), 856-899. https://doi.org/10.2307/2111227
  24. Luskin, R. C. (1990). Explaining political sophistication. Political Behavior, 12(4), 331-361. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00992793
  25. McGraw, K. M., & Pinney, N. (1990). The effects of general and domain-specific expertise on political memory and judgment. Social Cognition, 8(1), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1990.8.1.9
  26. Nadeau, R., & Niemi, R. G. (1995). Educated guesses: The process of answering factual knowledge questions in surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 59(3), 323-346. https://doi.org/10.1086/269480
  27. Nie, N. H., Junn, J. & Stehlik-Barry, K. (1996). Education and democratic citizenship in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  28. Norton, E. C., Wang, H., & Ai, C. (2004). Computing interaction effects and standard errors in logit and probit models. The Stata Journal, 4(2), 154-167.
  29. Price, V., & Hsu, M.-L. (1992). The role of misinformation and attitudes toward homosexuals. Public Opinion Quarterly, 56(1), 29-52. https://doi.org/10.1086/269294
  30. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values New York: Free Press.
  31. Sidanius, J. (1988). Political sophistication and political deviance: A structural equation examination of context theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.55.1.37
  32. Simon, J. L. (1965). The cause of the newspaper rate differential: A substantive-demandcurve analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 73(5), 536-539. https://doi.org/10.1086/259078
  33. Simon, R. J., & Simon, J. L. (1974). Money incentives and family size: A hypothetical-question study. Public Opinion Quarterly, 38(4), pp. 585-595. https://doi.org/10.1086/268185
  34. Zaller, J. R. (1992). The nature and origins of mass opinion New York: Cambridge University Press.
  35. Zelen, M., & Severo, N. C. (1964). Probability functions, In M. Abramowitz, & I. A. Stegun (Eds.) Handbook of mathematical functions with formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables (pp. 925-996). New York: Dover.,