- Volume 16 Issue 4
Peak power reduction is becoming increasingly important not only for grid operators but also for residential users. The scheduling of electric loads tries to reduce the power peak by splitting the power-on period of an electric device into multiple smaller ones and by interleaving the on-periods of every device in a holistic way. This paper analyzes the performance of EDF, LSF, TCBM, and lazy scheduling algorithms and proposes the enhancement schemes. For analysis, we have implemented the scheduling policies in a simulation environment for distributed control systems. Through extensive experiments using real power traces, we discuss their performance characteristics in terms of power deviation, switch count, and temperature violation ratio. To prevent excessive switching, we propose to employ the concept of limited preemptibility and evaluate its effect on performance. It is found that the best performance is achieved when the scheduler capacity is dynamically adjusted to the actual power demand. The experiment results show that, by load scheduling, the probability of having a power deviation greater than 150W is reduced from 21.5% down to 3.2%.
Electric load scheduling;limited preemptibility;peak power reduction;performance evaluation
- S. Barker, A. Mishra, D. Irwin, E. Cecchet, and P. Shenoy, "Smart*: an open data set and tools for enabling research in sustainable homes," in Proc. of workshop on Data Mining Applications in Sustainability, Aug. 2012.
- T. Facchinetti and M. L. Della Vedova, "Real-time modelling for direct load control in cyber-physical power systems," IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 689-698, Nov. 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TII.2011.2166787 https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2011.2166787
- S. Barker, A. Mishra, D. Irwin, P. Shenoy, and J. Albrecht, "SmartCap: flattening peak electricity demand in smart homes," in Proc. IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, pp. 67-75, Mar. 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PerCom.2012.6199851
- G. Karmakar, A. Kabra, and K. Ramaritham, "Coordinated scheduling of thermostatically controlled real-time systems under peak power constraint," in Proc. IEEE Real Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, pp. 33-42, Apr. 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RTAS.2013.6531077
- T. X. Nghiem, M. Behl, R. Mangharam, and G. J. Papps, "Green scheduling of control systems for peak demand reduction," in Proc. IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference, pp. 5131-5136, Dec. 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CDC.2011.6161164
- G. C. Buttazzo, M. Bertogna, and G. Yao, "Limited preemptive scheduling for real-time systems. A survey," IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3-15, Feb. 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2188805 https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2188805
- K.-H. John and M. Tiegelkamp, "IEC 61131-3: programming industrial automation systems," Springer, 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-12015-2
- I. Kim, T. Kim, M. Sung, E. Tisserant, L. Bessard, and C. Choi, "An open-source development environment for industrial automation with EtherCAT and PLCopen motion control," in Proc. IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, Sep. 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2013.6648122 https://doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2013.6648122
Supported by : 서울시립대학교