DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Factors Influencing Maternal-Fetal attachment among Pregnant Women

임부의 태아애착행위에 영향을 미치는 요인

  • Received : 2015.02.02
  • Accepted : 2015.03.12
  • Published : 2015.03.31

Abstract

This study was conducted in order to identify factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment among pregnant women, considering the factors presented in Mercer's theory: Becoming a Mother(pregnancy stress, self-esteem, dyadic adjustment, sense of mastery, antepartum stress). The data was collected through structured questionnaires from 140 pregnant women who visited the obstetric clinic and public health centers in a metropolitan area to have prenatal tests from August 23th to November 25th 2014. The data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using descriptive statistics, the t-test, ANOVA, the Pearson's correlation coefficients and a stepwise multiple regression. The results were as follows: Maternal-fetal attachment in the group of pregnant women under 30 years of age was significantly higher than that in the group of over the age of 31(t=2.79,p=.004). Primiparas had higher maternal-fetal attachment than multiparas(F=3.27, p=.041). There was a negative correlation between pregnancy stress(r=-0.22, p=.009) and maternal-fetal attachment. Self-esteem (r=0.45, p<.001), dyadic adjustment(r=0.42, p<.001), sense of mastery(r=0.24, p=.005) and maternal-fetal attachment were, however, positively correlated. It was found that self-esteem, dyadic adjustment and age were some of the factors influencing maternal-fetal attachment among pregnant women. These variables explained 26.1% of the variance in maternal-fetal attachment. Findings of this study indicate needs for comprehension and assessment of self-esteem and dyadic adjustment in pregnant women through prenatal tests. Also, the intervention programs to improve maternal-fetal attachment among older mothers should be developed and implemented.

Keywords

Becoming a Mother;Maternal-Fetal Attachment;Pregnant Women

References

  1. R. T. Mercer, "Becoming a Mother Versus Maternal Role Attainment", Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol.36, No.3, pp.226-232, September, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04042.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.2004.04042.x
  2. R. T. Mercer, and L. O. Walker, "A Review of Nursing Interventions Foster Becoming a Mother", Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, Vol.35, No.5, pp.568-582, September/October, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00086.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2006.00080.x
  3. M. K. Kwon, and K. S. Bang, "Relationship of Prenatal Stress and Depression to Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Fetal Growth", Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, Vol.41, No.2, pp.276-283, 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2011.41.2.276 https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2011.41.2.276
  4. M. S. Cranley, "Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy", Nursing Research, Vol.30, No.5, pp.281-284, 1981. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198109000-00008 https://doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198109000-00008
  5. L. C. Callister, "Relationship Among Maternal-Fetal Attachment, Prenatal Depression, and Health Practices in Pregnancy", American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, Vol.27, No.1, pp.59, January/February, 2002. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005721-200201000-00020 https://doi.org/10.1097/00005721-200201000-00020
  6. T. Y. Moon, S. M. Park, and M. S. Han, "The Influence of Regular Participation in Pregnant Exercise on the Body-esteem and Pregnancy Stress", Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol.11, No.3, pp.1153-1162, 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2010.11.3.1153 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2010.11.3.1153
  7. J. Y. Yoon, and M. H. Kang, "Development of Pregnant Women-Fetus Interaction Program and its Effects on enhancing Mother-Newborn baby Interaction", Korean Journal of Psychology General, Vol.30, No.2, pp.157-175, 2004.
  8. C. Y. Kang, and J. Y. Youn, "The Pregnant Woman-Fetus Interaction and Attachment Development", Journal of Child Studies, Vol.10, pp.131-147, 2004.
  9. R. T. Mercer, Becoming a Mother, New York: Springer, 1995.
  10. R. T. Mercer, "A Theoretical Framwork for Studing Factors that Impact on the Maternal Role", Nursing Research, Vol.30, No.2, pp.73-77, 1981. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006199-198103000-00003
  11. H. L. Ahn, "An Experimental Study of the Effects of Husband's Supportive Behavior Reinforcement Education on Stress Relife of Primigravidas", Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, Vol.15, No.1, pp.5-16, 1985.
  12. R. T. Mercer, S. Ferketich, K. S. May, J. DeJoseph, and D. Solid, "Futher Exploration of Maternal and Paternal Fetal Attachment", Research in Nursing & Health, Vol.11, No.2, pp.83-95, 1988. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770110204 https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770110204
  13. Y. S. Lee, and R. H. Hwang, "A Study of The Relationship Between Stress and Maternal Fetal Attachment in the Pregnant Women", Chonnam Journal of Nusing Sciences, Vol.4, No.1, August, pp.53-69, 1999.
  14. S. Y. Kang, and M. R. Chung, "The Relationship between Pregnant Women's Stress, Temperament and Maternal-Fetal Attachment", Korean Journal of Human Ecology, Vol.21, No.1, pp.213-223, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5934/KJHE.2012.21.2.213 https://doi.org/10.5934/KJHE.2012.21.2.213
  15. H. Wee, and S. Y. Park, "The Relationships between Anxiety, Depression, Prenatal Stress, Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Gratitude", Journal of Korean Society Maternal and Child Health, Vol.16, No.2, pp274-286, 2012. https://doi.org/10.21896/jksmch.2012.16.2.274
  16. M. Rogenberg, Society and the adolescent self image, Middletown, CT, England: Wesleyan University Press, 1989.
  17. S. S. Chung, and K. H. Joung, "Comparative Study on Predictors of Maternal Confidence between Primipara and Multipara", Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, Vol.17, No.3, pp.181-189, 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4094/jkachn.2011.17.3.181 https://doi.org/10.4094/jkachn.2011.17.3.181
  18. H. J. Locke, and K. M. Wallace, "Short Marital-Adjustment and Prediction Tests: Their Reliability and Validity", Marriage and Family Living, Vol.21, No.3, pp.251-255. August, 1959. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/348022 https://doi.org/10.2307/348022
  19. M. H. Sung, and K. S. Joo, "Relationships among Marital Satisfaction, Spousal Support and Practice of Taekyo in Pregnant Women", Korean Journal of Womens Health Nursing, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.31-38, 2011. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2011.17.1.31 https://doi.org/10.4069/kjwhn.2011.17.1.31
  20. L. I. Pearlin, M. A. Lieberman, E. G. Menaghan, and J. T. Mullan, "The Stress Process", Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol.22, No.4, pp.337-356, December, 1981. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136676 https://doi.org/10.2307/2136676
  21. American Pregnancy Association (APA) : Depression in Pregnancy, retrieved September 20, 2014. from http://www.pregnancy.org.
  22. E. J. Lee, and J. S. Park, "Status of Antepartum Depression and Its Influencing Factors in Pregnant Women", Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, Vol.14, No.8, pp.3897-3906, 2013. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.8.3897 https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.8.3897
  23. B. Figueiredo, and R. Costa, "Mother's Stress, Mood and Emotional Involvement with the Infant: 3 months before and 3 months after childbirth", Archives of Womens Mental Health, Vol.12, No.3, pp.143-153, June, 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-009-0059-4 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-009-0059-4
  24. J. A. Jo, and Y. H. Kim, "Mother's Prenatal Environment, Stress during Pregnancy and Children's Problem Behaviors", Journal of Human Ecology, Vol.11, No.2, pp.43-62, 2007.
  25. B. J. Jeon, "Self-esteem: A Test of its Measure-ability", Yonsei Non Chong, Vol.11. No.1, pp.107-130, 1974.
  26. G. B. Spanier, "Measuring Dyadic Adjustment Scale: New Scales for Assessing the Quality of Marriage and Similar Dyads", Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol.38, No.1. pp.15-28, February, 1976. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/350547 https://doi.org/10.2307/350547
  27. D. M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. R. Crane, and J. H. Larson, "A Revision of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale for use with Distressed and Nondistressed Couple: Construct Hierarchy and Multidimensional Scales", Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Vol.21. No.3, pp.289-308, 1995. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00163.x https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1995.tb00163.x
  28. S. I. Choi, "Revision Dyadic Adjustment Scale: Reliability and Validity", Gho Hwang Non Jip Kyung Hee Graduate School, Vol.35, 2004.
  29. Korean Gerontology Forum, Older Scale, House of Sharing, 2010.
  30. J. Cox, J. Holden, and R. Sagovsky, "Detection of Postnatal Depression: Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale", The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol.150. No.6, pp.782-786, 1987. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.150.6.782 https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.150.6.782
  31. K. W. Han, M. J. Kim, and J. M. Park, "The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Korean Version: Reliability and Validity", Journal of Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, Vol.10, No.2, pp.201-207, 2004.
  32. O. Chatillon and C. Even, "Antepartum Depression: Prevalence, Diagnosis and Treatment", L'Encephale, Vol.36, No.6, pp.443-451. 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2010.02.004 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2010.02.004
  33. J. H. Park, "The Effect of Visual and Verbal Information by Antenatal Ultrasound on Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Self-Care", MS Thesis Yonsei University, 2001.
  34. J. Y. Lee, J. Y, Cho, S. B. Chang, J. H, Park, and Y. H. Lee, "Effect of Visual Information by Ultrasound on Maternal-Fetal Attachment", Korean Journal of Womens Health Nursing, Vol.8, No.3, pp.335-344, 2002.
  35. B. H. Choi, "Association of Maternal Fetal Attachment with Newborn's Visual and Auditory Senses", MS Thesis Yonsei University, 2003.
  36. A. Yarcheski, N. E. Mahon, T. J. Yarcheski, N. M. Hanks, and B. L. Cannella, "A Meta-Analytic Study of Predictors of Maternal-Fetal Attachment", International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol.46, No.5, pp.708-715, 2009. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.10.013 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.10.013
  37. M. H. Hur, "Analysis of Perceived Spouse Support and Self Concept and Other Variables Related to Maternal Fetal attachment", Journal of Kimsan junior college, pp.279-329, 1995.
  38. M. R. Chung, S. K. Kang, and H. J. Lee, "The Relationship Between Marital Quality and Parent-Fetal Attachment by Pregnant Couples", Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, Vol.50, No.4, pp.51-61, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6115/khea.2012.50.4.051 https://doi.org/10.6115/khea.2012.50.4.051
  39. S. H. Ahn, "An Exploration of the Maternal & Paternal-Fetal Attachment", Korean Journal of Womens Health Nursing, Vol.3, No.1, pp49-63, 1993.
  40. E. H. Lee, "A Study on the Pregnancy Experience of the Primiparous Couple: The Transition to Parenthood", Doctorial Dissertation Seoul National University, 1995.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 경북대학교