Effects of Higher Modes on the Response Spectra of High-rise Buildings considering the Kinematic Interaction of a Foundation System

기초체계의 운동학적 상호작용을 고려한 고층건물의 응답스펙트럼에 미치는 고차모드의 영향

  • Kim, Yong-Seok (Department of Architectural Engineering, Mokpo National University)
  • 김용석 (국립목포대학교 건축공학과)
  • Received : 2014.11.21
  • Accepted : 2015.03.04
  • Published : 2015.05.01


Response spectra of a building are made with a SDOF system taking into account a first mode shape, even though higher modes may affect on the dynamic responses of a high-rise building. A soft soil layer under a building also affects on the responses of a building. In this study, seismic responses of a MDOF system were investigated to examine the effects of higher modes on the response of a tall building by comparing them with those of a SDOF system including the kinematic interaction effect. Study was performed using a pseudo 3D finite element program with seven bedrock earthquake records downloaded from the PEER database. Effects of higher modes on the seismic responses of a tall building were investigated for base shear force and base moment of a MDOF system including story shear forces and story moments. Study results show that higher modes of a MDOF system contribute to a reduction of base shear force up to 1/4-1/5 of KBC and base moment. The effect of higher modes is more significant on the base shear force than on the base moment. Maximum story shear force and moment occurred at the top part of a building rather than at a base in the cases of tall buildings differently from short buildings, and higher modes of a tall building affected on the base forces making them almost constant at the base. A soft soil layer also affects some on the base shear force of a high-rise building independently on the soft soil type, but a soft soil effect is prominent on the base moment.


  1. Choi BJ, Song IH. Seismic Behavior of High-rise Steel Momentresisting Frames with Vertical Mass Irregularity, Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea. 2004; 8(1): 1-15.
  2. Koh HM, Park KS, Park WS, Cho IS. Robust Control of Earthquake Responses Considering Higher Mode Uncertainty, Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea. 2000; 4(2): 99-108.
  3. Lee DG, Choi WH, Ann JH. Improved Distribution of Seismic Forces for Evaluation of Nonlinear Seismic Response of Building Structures. Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea. 2001; 5(2): 33-47.
  4. Jun DH, Park HG, Kim YB. Establishing Appropriate Seismic Force Distribution on Multistory Building Structures Subjected to Seismic Excitations. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea. 1994; 10(12): 219-223.
  5. Mau ST, Aruna V. Story-Drift, Shear, and OTM Estimation from Building Seismic Records. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE. 1994; 120(11): 3366-3385.
  6. Chon JY, Park SS. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Tubular Structures Considering Soil Types. Journal of the Regional Association of Architectural Institute of Korea. 2007; 9(3): 217-224.
  7. Kim YS. Nonlinear Effects of a Soft Soil Layer on the Horizontal Seismic Responses of Buildings. Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea. 2001; 5(2): 23-31.
  8. Kim YS. Dynamic Response of Structures on Pile Foundations, Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin; c1987, 272 p.
  9. Kim YS. Roesset JM. Effect of Nonlinear Soil Behavior on the Inelastic Seismic Response of a Structure. The International Journal of Geomechanics, ASCE. 2004 Jun; 4(2): 104-114.
  10. Roesset JM. A Review of Soil-Structure Interaction. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; c1980, 125 p.
  11. Kausel E. Forced Vibrations of Circular Foundations on Layered Media. Research Report R74-11. Department of Civil Engineering, MIT; c1974.
  12. Gazetas G, Tassoulas JL. Horizontal Stiffness of Arbitrarily Shaped Embedded Foundations. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE. 1987; 113(5): 440-457.
  13. International Building Code Council (IBC). International Building Code (IBC2009); c2009; p. 340-366.
  14. PEER Strong Earthquake Data Base. Available from:
  15. Architectural Institute of Korea. Korean Building Code (KBC2009). c2009, p. 122-164.