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Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Delta (PPARδ) Gene before and after Exercise in Horse

  • Cho, Hyun-Woo ;
  • Shin, Sangsu ;
  • Park, Jeong-Woong ;
  • Choi, Jae-Young ;
  • Kim, Nam-Young ;
  • Lee, Woon-Kyu ;
  • Lee, Hak-Kyo ;
  • Song, Ki-Duk ;
  • Cho, Byung-Wook
  • Received : 2014.07.29
  • Accepted : 2014.10.27
  • Published : 2015.05.01

Abstract

While athletic abilities such as speed, endurance and recovery are important in the horse, genes related to these abilities have not been extensively investigated. Here, we characterized the horse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta ($PPAR{\delta}$) gene and analyzed the expression of $PPAR{\delta}$ during exercise. $PPAR{\delta}$ is a known regulator of ${\beta}$-oxidation, muscle fiber transformation, and running endurance. Through evolutionary analysis using the synonymous and non-synonymous mutation ratio, it was revealed that positive selection occurred in the horse $PPAR{\delta}$ gene. Two important domains related to nuclear hormone receptors, C4 zinc finger and ligand binding domain, were also found to be conserved well in horse $PPAR{\delta}$. Horse $PPAR{\delta}$ was expressed ubiquitously in many tissues, but the expression level was various depending on the tissues. In the skeletal muscle, $PPAR{\delta}$ increased about 2.5 folds after 30 min of exercise. Unlike in muscle, the increase of $PPAR{\delta}$ expression was observed at 60 min but not 30 min of exercise in leukocytes. This finding might be useful for testing the endurance of horse using blood samples. Conclusively, the horse $PPAR{\delta}$ gene is evolutionarily conserved well and can be used as a biomarker of endurance in horse.

Keywords

Horse;Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Delta;Exercise;Endurance

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Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration