- Volume 28 Issue 5
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Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis of Adrenergic Receptor Beta 2 (ADRB2) Gene before and after Exercise in the Horse
- Cho, Hyun-Woo ;
- Shin, Sangsu ;
- Song, Ki-Duk ;
- Park, Jeong-Woong ;
- Choi, Jae-Young ;
- Lee, Hak-Kyo ;
- Cho, Byung-Wook
- Received : 2014.07.29
- Accepted : 2014.09.23
- Published : 2015.05.01
The adrenergic receptor beta 2 (ADRB2) plays a role in various physiological responses of the muscle to exercise, such as contraction and relaxation. Given its important role in muscle function, we investigated the structure of the horse ADRB2 gene and its expression pattern after exercise to determine if it can serve as a putative biomarker for recovery. Evolutionary analyses using synonymous and non-synonymous mutation ratios, were compared with other species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken, dog, and cat), and revealed the occurrence of positive selection in the horse ADRB2 gene. In addition, expression analyses by quantitative polymerase chain reaction exhibited ubiquitous distribution of horse ADRB2 in various tissues including lung, skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, appendix, colon, spinal cord and heart, with the highest expression observed in the lung. The expression of ADRB2 in skeletal muscle was significantly up-regulated about four folds 30 minutes post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. The expression level of ADRB2 in leukocytes, which could be collected with convenience compared with other tissues in horse, increased until 60 min after exercise but decreased afterward until 120 min, suggesting the ADRB2 expression levels in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker to check the early recovery status of horse after exercise. In conclusion, we identified horse ADRB2 gene and analyzed expression profiles in various tissues. Additionally, analysis of ADBR2 gene expression in leukocytes could be a useful biomarker useful for evaluation of early recovery status after exercise in racing horses.
Adrenergic Receptor Beta 2;Biomarker;Exercise Recovery;Horse;Leukocytes
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