DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Feeding Barley Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Chemistry of Gilts and Growth Recoveries by Feeding a Non-contaminated Diet

  • Kong, C. ;
  • Shin, S.Y. ;
  • Park, C.S. ;
  • Kim, B.G.
  • Received : 2014.09.11
  • Accepted : 2014.12.03
  • Published : 2015.05.01

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of feeding barley naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth performance, vulva swelling, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein of gilts and the recovery of gilts fed normal diets immediately after the exposure to contaminated diets by measuring growth performance and vulva swelling. In Exp. 1, four diets were prepared to contain 0%, 15%, 30%, or 45% contaminated barley containing 25.7 mg/kg deoxynivalenol and $26.0{\mu}g/kg$ zearalenone. Sixteen gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 33.3 kg (standard deviation = 3.0) were individually housed in a metabolism crate and assigned to 4 diets with 4 replicates in a randomized complete block design based on BW. During the 14-d feeding trial, individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal lengths of vulva were measured every 3 d. From d 10, feces were collected by the maker-to-marker method for 4 d. Blood samples were collected on d 14. During the overall period, the average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain:feed of pigs linearly decreased (p<0.01) as the dietary concentration of contaminated barley increased. However, the digestibility of crude protein was linearly increased (p = 0.011) with the increasing amounts of contaminated barley. Increasing dietary Fusarium mycotoxin concentrations did not influence vulva size, blood characteristic as well as immunoglobulin level of pigs. In the Exp. 2, a corn-soybean meal-based diet was formulated as a recovery diet. Pigs were fed the recovery diet immediately after completion of the Exp. 1. During the 14-d of recovery period, the individual BW and feed consumption were measured weekly and the vertical and horizontal length of vulva were measured every 3 d from d 0. On d 7, the feed intake of pigs previously fed contaminated diets already reached that of pigs fed a diet with 0% contaminated barley and no significant difference in growth performance among treatments was observed during d 7 to 14 of the recovery period. In conclusion, increasing levels of mycotoxins in diets linearly decreased the growth performance of pigs, and these damages can be recovered in 7 d after the diet was replaced with a normal diet. The vulva size, blood characteristic, immune responses were not affected by increasing level of contaminated barley in the diets fed to pigs.

Keywords

Deoxynivalenol;Growth;Mycotoxin;Swine;Zearalenone

References

  1. Accensi, F., P. Pinton, P. Callu, N. Abella-Bourges, J.-F. Guelfi, F. Grosjean, and I. P. Oswald. 2006. Ingestion of low doses of deoxynivalenol does not affect hematological, biochemical, or immune responses of piglets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1935-1942. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-355
  2. AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  3. Bergsjo, B., W. Langseth, I. Nafstad, J. H. Jansen, and H. J. S. Larsen. 1993. The effects of naturally deoxynivalenolcontaminated oats on the clinical condition, blood parameters, performance and carcass composition of growing pigs. Vet. Res. Commun. 17:283-294. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01839219
  4. Busher, J. T. 1990. Serum albumin and globulin. In: Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. (Eds. H. Walker, W. Hall, and J. Hurst). Butterworths, Boston, MA, USA.
  5. CAST (Council for Agricultural Science and Technology). 2003. Mycotoxins: risks in plant animal and human systems. Council for Agric. Sci. Technol. Task Force Report No 139, Ames, IA, USA. pp. 58-63.
  6. CEC (Commission of the European Communities). 2006. Commission recommendation of 17 August 2006 on the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2 and fumonisins in products intended for animal feeding. Off. J. Eur. Union L229, 7-9.
  7. Chaytor, A. C., J. A. Hansen, E. van Heugten, M. T. See, and S. W. Kim. 2011. Occurrence and decontamination of mycotoxins in swine feed. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24:723-738. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.10358
  8. Danicke, S., H. Valenta, S. Doll, M. Ganter, and G. Flachowsky. 2004a. On the effectiveness of a detoxifying agent in preventing fusario-toxicosis in fattening pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 114:141-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2003.11.012
  9. Danicke, S., H. Valenta, F. Klobasa, S. Doll, M. Ganter, and G. Flachowsky. 2004b. Effects of graded levels of Fusarium toxin contaminated wheat in diets for fattening pigs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, deoxynivalenol balance and clinical serum characteristics. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 58:1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/0003942031000161045
  10. Doll, S., S. Danicke, K. H. Ueberschar, H. Valenta, U. Schnurrbusch, M. Ganter, F. Klobasa, and G. Flachowsky. 2003. Effects of graded levels of Fusarium toxin contaminated maize in diets for female weaned piglets. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 57:311-334. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039420310001607680
  11. Drochner, W., M. Schollenberger, H. P. Piepho, S. Gotz, U. Lauber, M. Tafaj, F. Klobasa, U. Weiler, R. Claus, and M. Steffl. 2004. Serum IgA-promoting effects induced by feed loads containing isolated deoxynivalenol (DON) in growing piglets. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 67:1051-1067. https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390490447313
  12. Goyarts, T., S. Danicke, H. J. Rothkotter, J. Spilke, U. Tiemann, and M. Schollenberger. 2005. On the effects of a chronic deoxynivalenol intoxication on performance, haematological and serum parameters of pigs when diets are offered either for ad libitum consumption or fed restrictively. J. Vet. Med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 52:305-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2005.00734.x
  13. Haydon, K. D., D. A. Knabe, and T. D. Tanksley, Jr. 1984. Effects of level of feed intake on nitrogen, amino acid and energy digestibilities measured at the end of the small intestine and over the total digestive tract of growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 59:717-724. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1984.593717x
  14. Jiang, S. Z., Z. B. Yang, W. R. Yang, B. Q. Yao, H. Zhao, F. X. Liu, C. C. Chen, and F. Chi. 2010. Effects of feeding purified zearalenone contaminated diets with or without clay enterosorbent on growth, nutrient availability, and genital organs in post-weaning female pigs. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 23:74-81.
  15. Kanora, A. and D. Maes. 2009. The role of mycotoxins in pig reproduction: A review. Vet. Med. 54:565-576.
  16. Kim, B. G., D. M. Wulf, R. J. Maddock, D. N. Peters, C. Pedersen, Y. Liu, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Effects of dietary barley on growth performance, carcass traits and pork quality of finishing pigs. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 27:102-113.
  17. Kong, C. and O. Adeola. 2014. Invited review: Evaluation of amino acid and energy utilization in feedstuff for swine and poultry diets. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:917-925. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.r.02
  18. Kong, C., S. Y. Shin, and B. G. Kim. 2014. Evaluation of mycotoxin sequestering agents for aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol: an in vitro approach. SpringerPlus 3:346. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-346
  19. Latimer, K. S., E. A. Mahaffey, and K. W. Prasse. 2003. Duncan and Prasse's Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology. 4th ed. Iowa State Press, Ames, IA, USA.
  20. Matthaus, K., S. Danicke, W. Vahjen, O. Simon, J. Wang, H. Valenta, K. Meyer, A. Strumpf, H. Ziesenib, and G. Flachowsky. 2004. Progression of mycotoxin and nutrient concentrations in wheat after inoculation with Fusarium culmorum. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 58:19-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/00039420310001656668
  21. Mok, C. H., S. Y. Shin, and B. G. Kim. 2013. Aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in swine diets: Predictions on growth performance. Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Pecu. 26:243-254.
  22. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  23. NRC. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  24. Papaioannou, D. S., S. C. Kyriakis, A. Papasteriadis, N. Roumbies, A. Yannakopoulos, and C. Alexopoulos. 2002. A field study on the effect of in-feed inclusion of a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on health status and performance of sows/gilts and their litters. Res. Vet. Sci. 72:51-59.
  25. Prelusky, D. B., R. G. Gerdes, K. L. Underhill, B. A. Rotter, P. Y. Jui, and H. L. Trenholm. 1994. Effects of low-level dietary deoxynivalenol on haematological and clinical parameters of the pig. Nat. Toxins 2:97-104. https://doi.org/10.1002/nt.2620020302
  26. Rodrigues, I. and K. Naehrer. 2012a. A three-year survey on the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs and feed. Toxins 4:663-675. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins4090663
  27. Rodrigues, I. and K. Naehrer. 2012b. Prevalence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs and feed surveyed worldwide in 2009 and 2010. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 51:175-192.
  28. Rotter, B. A., B. K. Thompson, M. Lessard, H. L. Trenholm, and H. Tryphonas. 1994. Influence of low-level exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins on selected immunological and hematological parameters in young swine. Toxicol. Sci. 23:117-124. https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/23.1.117
  29. Smith, T. K., E. G. McMillan, and J. B. Castillo. 1997. Effect of feeding blends of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains containing deoxynivalenol and fusaric acid on growth and feed consumption of immature swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2184-2191. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.7582184x
  30. Swamy, H. V. L. N., T. K. Smith, E. J. MacDonald, H. J. Boermans, and E. J. Squires. 2002. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on swine performance, brain regional neurochemistry, and serum chemistry and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3257-3267. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.80123257x
  31. Swamy, H. V. L. N., T. K. Smith, E. J. MacDonald, N. A. Karrow, B. Woodward, and H. J. Boermans. 2003. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological measurements of starter pigs, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2792-2803. https://doi.org/10.2527/2003.81112792x
  32. Takemura, H., J. Y. Shim, K. Sayama, A. Tsubura, B. T. Zhu, and K. Shimoi. 2007. Characterization of the estrogenic activities of zearalenone and zeranol in vivo and in vitro. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 103:170-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.08.008
  33. USDA. 2014. U.S. Grain: World Markets and Trade. http://usda01.library.cornell.edu/usda/current/grainmarket/grain-market-03-10-2014.pdf, Accessed July 15, 2014. Washington, DC, USA.
  34. Weaver, A. C., M. T. See, J. A. Hansen, Y. B. Kim, A. L. P. de Souza, T. F. Middleton, and S. W. Kim. 2013. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure. Toxins 5:1261-1281. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins5071261
  35. Woyengo, T. A., E. Beltranena, and R. T. Zijlstra. 2014. Controlling feed cost by including alternative ingredients into pig diets: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 92:1293-1305. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-7169
  36. Xiao, H., M. M. Wu, B. E. Tan, Y. L. Yin, T. J. Li, D. F. Xiao, and L. Li. 2013. Effects of composite antimicrobial peptides in weanling piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol: I. Growth performance, immune function, and antioxidation capacity. J. Anim. Sci. 91:4772-4780. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2013-6426
  37. Young, L. G., L. McGirr, V. E. Valli, J. H. Lumsden, and A. Lun. 1983. Vomitoxin in corn fed to young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 57:655-664. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1983.573655x

Cited by

  1. Barrier protection via Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in porcine intestinal epithelial cells damaged by deoxynivalnol vol.47, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-016-0309-1

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration