DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Choline Essentiality and Its Requirement in Diets for Juvenile Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

  • Khosravi, Sanaz ;
  • Jang, Ji-Woong ;
  • Rahimnejad, Samad ;
  • Song, Jin-Woo ;
  • Lee, Kyeong-Jun
  • Received : 2014.07.17
  • Accepted : 2014.11.23
  • Published : 2015.05.01

Abstract

A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and $Con^+$, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, $8.8{\pm}0.01g$) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed $Con^+$ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the $Con^+$ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the $Con^+$ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately $230mgkg^{-1}$ diet meets the requirement of parrot fish.

Keywords

Choline;Parrot Fish;Oplegnathus fasciatus;Growth Performance;Requirement

References

  1. Anderson, D. P. 1992. Immunostimulants, adjuvants, and vaccine carriers in fish: applications to aquaculture. Annu. Rev. Fish. Dis. 2:281-307. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-8030(92)90067-8
  2. Anderson, D. P. and A. K. Siwicki. 1995. Basic hematology and serology for fish health programs. In: Diseases in Asian aquaculture II (Eds. M. Shariff, J. R. Arthur, and R. P. Subasinghe). Fish health section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Phillipines. pp. 185-202.
  3. Bender, D. A. 1992. Nutritional Biochemistry of the Vitamins. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
  4. Bueno Galaz, G., S. S. Kim, and K. J. Lee. 2010. Effects of different dietary vitamin E levels on growth performance, nonspecific immune responses, and disease resistance against Vibrio anguillarum in parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 23:916-923. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2010.90494
  5. Chapman, M. J. 1980. Animal lipoproteins: Chemistry, structure, and comparative aspects. J. Lipid Res. 21:789-853.
  6. Combs, G. F. 1992. The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. Academic Press, New York, USA.
  7. Courreges, M. C., F. Benecia, A. Uceda, and A. J. Monserrat. 2003. Effect of dietary choline deficiency on immunocompetence in Wistar rats. Nutr. Res. 23: 519-526. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(02)00544-4
  8. Craig, S. R. and D. M. Gatlin. 1996. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. J. Nutr. 126:1696-1700. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/126.6.1696
  9. Eric, A., J. R. Glende, and W. E. Cornatzer. 1965. Fatty acid composition of rat liver lipids during choline deficiency. J. Nutr. 86:178-186. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/86.2.178
  10. Folch, J., M. Lees, and S. G. H. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.
  11. Griffin, M. E., K. A. Wilson, M. R. White, and P. B. Brown. 1994. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile hybrid striped bass. J. Nutr. 124:1685-1689. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/124.9.1685
  12. Halver, J. E. 2002. The vitamins, In: Fish Nutrition (Eds. J. E. Halver, and R. W. Hardy). 3rd edn. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. pp. 61-140.
  13. Ketola, H. G. 1976. Choline metabolism and nutritional requirement of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). J. Anim. Sci. 43:474-477. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1976.432474x
  14. Kim, S. S., G. Bueno Galaz, M. A. Pham, J. W. Jang, D. H. Oh, I. K. Yeo, and K. J. Lee. 2009. Effects of dietary Supplementation of a Meju, Fermented Soybean Meal, and Aspergillus oryzae for Juvenile Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 22:849-856. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2009.80648
  15. Lim, S. J. and K. J. Lee. 2009. Partial replacement of fish meal by cottonseed meal and soybean meal with iron and phytase supplementation for parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Aqauculture 290:283-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.02.018
  16. Lim, S. J., D. H. Oh, S. Khosravi, J. H. Cha, S. H. Park, K. W. Kim, and K. J. Lee. 2013. Taurine is an essential nutrient for juvenile parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Aquaculture 414-415:274-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.08.013
  17. Mai, K., L. Xiao, Q. Ai, W. Wang, W. Xu, W. Zhang, Z. Liufu, and M. Ren. 2009. Dietary choline requirement for juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 289:124-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.01.016
  18. McDowell, L. R. 2000. Vitamins in Animal and Human Nutrition. 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, USA.
  19. Metcalfe, L. D., A. A. Schmitz, and J. R. Pelka. 1966. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis. Anal. Chem. 38:514-515. https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60235a044
  20. Nam, Y. K., Y. S. Cho, B. N. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. K. Kim, and D. S. Kim. 2005. Alteration of antioxidant enzymes at the mRNA level during short-term starvation of rockbream Oplegnathus fasciatus. Fish. Sci. 71:1385-1387. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-2906.2005.01107.x
  21. Nauss, K. M. and P. M. Newberne. 1981. Effects of dietary folate, vitamin B12 and methionine/choline on immune function. In: Diet and Resistance to Disease (Eds. M. Phillips, and A. Baetz). Plenum Publishing Corp, New York, USA. pp. 63-91.
  22. Nelson, G. J. and V. G. Shore. 1974. Characterization of the serum high density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of pink salmon. J. Biol. Chem. 249:536-542.
  23. NRC. 1993. National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  24. Ogino, C., N. Uki, T. Watanabe, Z. lida, and K. Ando. 1970. B vitamin requirements of carp. 4. Requirement for choline. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 36:1140-1146. https://doi.org/10.2331/suisan.36.1140
  25. Quade, M. J. and J. A. Roth. 1997. A rapid, direct assay to measure degranulation of bovine neutrophil primary granules. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 58:239-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2427(97)00048-2
  26. Rumsey, G. L. 1991. Choline-betaine requirements of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 95:107-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(91)90077-K
  27. Secombes, C. J. 1996. The non-specific immune system: Cellular defenses. In: The Fish Immune System (Eds. G. Iwama, T. Nakanishi). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. pp. 63-103.
  28. Shan, X., H. Quan, and S. Dou. 2008. Effects of delayed first feeding on growth and survival of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus larvae. Aquaculture 277:14-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.01.044
  29. Shiau, S. Y. and P. S. Lo. 2000. Dietary choline requirements of juvenile hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus$\times$O. aureus. J. Nutr. 130:100-103. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.1.100
  30. Tocher, D. R. 1995. Glycerophospholipid metabolism. In: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes, Metabolic and Adaptational Biochemistry, vol. 4. (Eds. P. W. Hochachka and T. P. Mommsen). Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 119-157.
  31. Tocher, D. R. 2003. Metabolism and functions of lipids and fatty acids in teleost fish. Rev. Fish. Sci. 11:107-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/713610925
  32. Twibell, R. G. and P. B. Brown. 2000. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J. Nutr. 130:95-99. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/130.1.95
  33. Wang, X., K. W. Kim, S. C. Bai, M. D. Huh, and B. Y. Cho. 2003. Effects of the different levels of dietary vitamin C on growth and tissue ascorbic acid changes in parrot fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Aquaculture 215:203-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00042-X
  34. Watkins, S. M., X. Zhu, and S. H. Zeisel. 2003. Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity and dietary choline regulate liver-plasma lipid flux and essential fatty acid metabolism in mice. J. Nutr. 133:3386-3391. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/133.11.3386
  35. Wauben, P. M. and P. E. Wainwright. 1999. The influence of neonatal nutrition on behavioral development: A critical appraisal. Nutr. Rev. 57:35-44.
  36. Wilson, R. P. and W. E. Poe. 1988. Choline nutrition of fingerling channel catfish. Aquaculture 68:65-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(88)90292-X
  37. Zeisel, S. H. 1990. Choline deficiency. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1:332-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/0955-2863(90)90001-2
  38. Zhang, Z. and R. P. Wilson. 1999. Reevaluation of the choline requirement of fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and determination of the availability of choline in common feed ingredients. Aquaculture 180:89-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00190-8

Cited by

  1. Response to dietary carbohydrates in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle tissue as revealed by NMR-based metabolomics vol.14, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-018-1390-4

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)