DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Estimation of Pork Quality Traits Using Exsanguination Blood and Postmortem Muscle Metabolites

  • Choe, J.H. (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, Korea University) ;
  • Choi, M.H. (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, Korea University) ;
  • Ryu, Y.C. (College of Applied Life Sciences, Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute, Jeju National University) ;
  • Go, G.W. (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kookmin University) ;
  • Choi, Y.M. (Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, KyungPook National University) ;
  • Lee, S.H. (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha University) ;
  • Lim, K.S. (Division of Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Lee, E.A. (Division of Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Kang, J.H. (Division of Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Hong, K.C. (Division of Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Kim, B.C. (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, Korea University)
  • Received : 2014.10.01
  • Accepted : 2014.12.09
  • Published : 2015.06.01

Abstract

The current study was designed to estimate the pork quality traits using metabolites from exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle simultaneously under the Korean standard pre- and post-slaughter conditions. A total of 111 Yorkshire (pure breed and castrated male) pigs were evaluated under the Korean standard conditions. Measurements were taken of the levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination, and muscle glycogen and lactate content at 45 min and 24 h postmortem. Certain pork quality traits were also evaluated. Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis including stepwise regression were performed. Exsanguination blood glucose and lactate levels were positively correlated with each other, negatively related to postmortem muscle glycogen content and positively associated with postmortem muscle lactate content. A rapid and extended postmortem glycolysis was associated with high levels of blood glucose and lactate, with high muscle lactate content, and with low muscle glycogen content during postmortem. In addition, these were also correlated with paler meat color and reduced water holding capacity. The results of multiple regression analyses also showed that metabolites in exsanguination blood and postmortem muscle explained variations in pork quality traits. Especially, levels of blood glucose and lactate and content of muscle glycogen at early postmortem were significantly associated with an elevated early glycolytic rate. Furthermore, muscle lactate content at 24 h postmortem alone accounted for a considerable portion of the variation in pork quality traits. Based on these results, the current study confirmed that the main factor influencing pork quality traits is the ultimate lactate content in muscle via postmortem glycolysis, and that levels of blood glucose and lactate at exsanguination and contents of muscle glycogen and lactate at postmortem can explain a large portion of the variation in pork quality even under the standard slaughter conditions.

Keywords

Exsanguination;Glucose;Glycogen;Lactate;Postmortem Glycolysis;Pork Quality

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Korea University

References

  1. van der Wal, P. G., B. Engel, and H. G. M. Reimert. 1999. The effect of stress, applied immediately before stunning, on pork quality. Meat Sci. 53:101-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00039-X
  2. Warner, R. D., P. L. Greenwood, D. W. Pethick, and D. M. Ferguson. 2010. Genetic and environmental effects on meat quality. Meat Sci. 86:171-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.042
  3. Warriss, P. D. 1990. The handling of cattle pre-slaughter and its effects on carcass and meat quality. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 28:171-186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(90)90052-F
  4. Warriss, P. D. 2010. Meat Science-An Introductory Text, 2nd ed. CABI., Cambridge, UK.
  5. Warriss, P. D., S. N. Brown, S. J. M. Adams, and I. K. Corlett. 1994. Relationships between subjective and objective assessments of stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs. Meat Sci. 38:329-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(94)90121-X
  6. Hambrecht, E., J. J. Eissen, D. J. Newman, C. H. M. Smits, M. W. A. Vertegen, and L. A. den Hartog. 2005b. Preslaughter handling effects on pork quality and glycolytic potential in two muscles differing in fiber type composition. J. Anim. Sci. 83:900-907. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.834900x
  7. Hambrecht, E., J. J. Eissen, R. I. J. Nooijen, B. J. Ducro, C. M. H. Smits, L. A. den Hartog, and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2004. Preslaughter stress and muscle energy largely determine pork quality at two commercial processing plants. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1401-1409. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251401x
  8. Honikel, K. O. 1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci. 49:447-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00034-5
  9. Joo, S. T., R. G. Kauffman, B. C. Kim, and G. B. Park. 1999. The relationship of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility to colour and water-holding capacity in porcine longissimus muscle. Meat Sci. 52:291-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00005-4
  10. Kauffman, R. G., G. Eikelenboom, P. G. van der Wal, G. Merkus, and M. Zaar. 1986. The use of filter paper to estimate drip loss of porcine musculature. Meat Sci. 18:191-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(86)90033-1
  11. Kocwin-Podisiadla, M., E. Krzecio, and W. Przybylski. 2006. Pork quality and methods of its evaluation - A review. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 15/56:241-248.
  12. Koknaroglu, H. and T. Akunal. 2013. Animal welfare: An animal science approach. Meat Sci. 95:821-827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.04.030
  13. Lee, S. H., J. H. Choe, Y. M. Choi, K. C. Jung, M. S. Rhee, K. C. Hong, S. K. Lee, Y. C. Ryu, and B. C. Kim. 2012. The influence of pork quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics on the eating quality of pork from various breeds. Meat Sci. 90:284-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.07.012
  14. Mota-Rojas, D., M. Becerril-Herrera, P. Roldan-Santiago, M. Alonso-Spilsbury, S. Flores-Peinado, R. Ramirez-Necoechea, J. A. Ramirez-Telles, P. Mora-Medina, M. Perez, E. Molina, E. Soni, and M. E. Trujillo-Ortega. 2012. Effects of long distance transportation and $CO_2$ stunning on critical blood values in pigs. Meat Sci. 90:893-898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.027
  15. National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  16. Ryu, Y. C., Y. M. Choi, and B. C. Kim. 2005. Variations in metabolite contents and protein denaturation of the longissimus dorsi muscle in various porcine quality classifications and metabolic rates. Meat Sci. 71:522-529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2005.04.034
  17. Ryu, Y. C. and B. C. Kim. 2006. Comparison of histochemical characteristics in various pork groups categorized by postmortem metabolic rate and pork quality. J. Anim. Sci. 84:894-901. https://doi.org/10.2527/2006.844894x
  18. Scheffler, T. L. and D. E. Gerrard. 2007. Mechanisms controlling pork quality development: The biochemistry controlling postmortem energy metabolism. Meat Sci. 77:7-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.04.024
  19. Shaw, F. D. and R. K. Tume. 1992. The assessment of preslaughter and slaughter treatments of livestock by measurement of plasma constituents-A review of recent work. Meat Sci. 32:311-329. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(92)90095-L
  20. Statistical Analysis System. 2009. SAS 9.2 SQL Procedure User's Guide. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  21. Bowker, B. C., A. L. Grant, J. C. Forrest, and D. E. Gerrard. 2000. Muscle metabolism and PSE pork. J. Anim. Sci. 79(e-suppl):1-8.
  22. Choe, J. H. and B. C. Kim. 2014. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 97:137-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.01.024
  23. Choe, J. H., Y. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. J. Nam, Y. C. Jung, H. C. Park, Y. Y. Kim, and B. C. Kim. 2009. The relation of blood glucose level to muscle fiber characteristics and pork quality traits. Meat Sci. 83: 62-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2009.03.011
  24. Choe, J. H., Y. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, H. G. Shin, Y. C. Ryu, K. C. Hong, and B. C. Kim. 2008. The relation between glycogen, lactate content and muscle fiber type composition, and their influence on postmortem glycolytic rate and pork quality. Meat Sci. 80:355-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2007.12.019
  25. D'Souza, D. N., F. R. Dunshea, R. D. Warner, and B. J. Leury. 1998a. The effect of handling pre-slaughter and carcass processing rate post-slaughter on pork quality. Meat Sci. 50:429-437. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(98)00055-2
  26. D'Souza, D. N., B. J. Leury, F. R. Dunshea, and R. D. Warner. 1998b. Effect of on-farm and pre-slaughter handling of pigs on meat quality. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 49:1021-1025. https://doi.org/10.1071/A98010
  27. Dreiling, C. E., D. E. Brown, L. Casale, and L. Kelly. 1987. Muscle glycogen: Comparison of iodine binding and enzyme digestion assays and application to meat samples. Meat Sci. 20:167-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/0309-1740(87)90009-X
  28. Edwards, L. N., T. E. Engle, J. A. Correa, M. A. Paradis, T. Grandin, and D. B. Anderson. 2010a. The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in slaughter pigs. Meat Sci. 85:435-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.02.012
  29. Edwards, L. N., T. Grandin, T. E. Engle, S. P. Porter, M. J. Ritter, A. A. Sosnicki, and D. B. Anderson. 2010b. Use of exsanguination blood lactate to assess the quality of preslaughter pig handling. Meat Sci. 86:384-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.022
  30. Faucitano, L. 1998. Preslaughter stressors effects on pork: A review. J. Muscle Foods 9:293-303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4573.1998.tb00662.x
  31. Foury, A., B. Lebret, P. Chevillon, A. Vautier, C. Terlouw, and P. Mormede. 2011. Alternative rearing systems in pigs: Consequences on stress indicators at slaughter and meat quality. Animal 5:1620-1625. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731111000784
  32. Hambrecht, E., J. J. Eissen, D. J. Newman, C. H. M. Smits, L. A. den Hartog, and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2005a. Negative effects of stress immediately before slaughter on pork quality are aggravated by suboptimal transport and lairage conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 83:440-448. https://doi.org/10.2527/2005.832440x