Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

  • Hao, W. (College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Wang, H.L. (College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Ning, T.T. (College of Engineering, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Yang, F.Y. (College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University) ;
  • Xu, C.C. (College of Engineering, China Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2014.10.29
  • Accepted : 2015.01.19
  • Published : 2015.06.01


The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from $10^7$ to $10^{10}cfu/g$ during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to $10^9cfu/g$ DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.


Total Mixed Ration;Fermentation;Moisture Level;Aerobic Stability;Yeast


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Scientific and Technological, Agro-scientific Research


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