Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

  • Pasqualotto, M. (Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana) ;
  • Neres, M.A. (Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana) ;
  • Guimaraes, V.F. (Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana) ;
  • Klein, J. (Pontifical Catholic University) ;
  • Inagaki, A.M. (Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana) ;
  • Ducati, C. (Department of Animal Science, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana)
  • Received : 2014.10.22
  • Accepted : 2015.01.30
  • Published : 2015.06.01


The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal $CO_2$ concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more intense before cutting, although after cutting they decreased until ceasing within 4 hours. The lowest values of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen were obtained with low conditioning intensity after 30 days of storage, 64.8 g/kg DM. The in vitro dry matter of Tifton 85 bermudagrass did not differ among the storage times or the conditioning intensities. There was no fungi present in the samples collected during the storage period up to 90 days after dehydration, with less than 30 colony forming units found on plate counting. The use of mower conditioners in different intensities of injury did not speed up the dehydration time of Tifton 85.


Haymaking;Mower Conditioner;Stomatal Conductance;Bermudagrass


  1. Burton, G. W., R. N. Gates, and G. M. Hill. 1993. Registration of 'Tifton 85' Bermuda grass. Crop Sci. 33:644-645.
  2. Berchielli, T. T., A. P. O. Sader, F. L. Tonani, S. F. Pazini, and P. Andrade 2001. Use the ANKOM system to determine neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber with different filter bags and sample amounts. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:1572-1578.
  3. Buckmaster, D. R., C. A. Rotz, and D. R. A. Mertens. 1989. Model of alfalfa hay storage. Trans. ASAE 32:30-36.
  4. Calixto Junior, M., C. C. Jobim, and M. W. do Canto. 2007. Dehydratation curve and chemical-bromatologic composition of stargrass (Cynodon nlemfunesis Vanderyst) hay in function of the baling process moisture content. Semina: Ciencias Agrarias, Londrina, Brazil. 28:493-502.
  5. Castagnara, D. D., J. P. Ames, M. A. Neres, P. S. R. Oliveira, F. B. Silva, E. E. Mesquita, J. R. Stangarlin, and G. Franzener. 2011. Use of conditioners in the production of Tifton 85 grass hay. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:2083-2090.
  6. Collins, M. 1995. Hay preservation effects on yield and quality. In: Post-harvest Physiology and Preservation of Forages (Eds. K. J. Moore, D. M. Kral, and M. K. Viney). American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, USA. 67-89.
  7. Dwain, R. H. and J. F. Vallentine. 1999. Harvested Forages. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. 426 p.
  8. Brazilian Research Company and Livestock. 2006. Brazilian Systems of Soil Classification, Brasilia. p. 412.
  9. Fernandez, M. R. 1993. Manual laboratory for plant pathology. Brazilian Research Company and Livestock, Passo Fundo, Brazil. p. 128.
  10. Holden, L. A. 1999. Comparison of methods of in vitro dry matter digestibility for tem feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1791-1794.
  11. IAPAR. Climate letters of Parana, Brazil 2006. Disponivel em: Accessed August 3, 2013.
  12. Jobim, C. C., L. Lombard, G. D. Goncalves, L. Lombardi, G. D. Goncalves, U. Cecato, G. T. Santos, and M. W. Canto. 2001. Dehydratation of Cynodon grass cultivars during haymaking. Acta Scientiarum 23:795-799.
  13. Johnson, R. R., T. L. Balwani, and L. J. Johnson. 1966. Corn plant maturity. Effect on in vitro cellulose digestibility and soluble carbohydrate content. J. Anim. Sci. 25:617-623.
  14. Ames, J. P. 2012. Tifton 85 Bermudagrasshay Production Systems in Winter. Master dissertation, University of West Parana, Campus Marechal C. Rondon, Parana, Brazil. 81 p.
  15. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed., Arlington, VA, USA. 1117.
  16. Lavezzo, W. and J. B. Andrade. 1994. Forage conservation. Hay and silage. In: Proceedings of the Brazilian Symposium on forage and pastures. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. 105-1066.
  17. McDonald, A. D. and E. A. Clark. 1987. Water and quality loss during field drying of hay. Advances in Agronomy. Madison 41:107-437.
  18. Menezes, M. and D. M. W. Silva-Halin. 1997. Pratical guide for pathogenic fungi. Recife: UFRPE, 106 p.
  19. Raymond, F. Shepperon, G. and R. Waltham 1978. Forage Conservation and Feeding. Farming Press, Ipswich, UK. p. 208.
  20. Reis, R A., A. L. Moreira, and M. S. Pedreira. 2001. Thechniques for production and conservation of hay of high quality forage. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on production and use of conserved forage. Maringa, Parana, Brazil. p 1-39.
  21. Ribeiro, K. G., O. G. Pereira, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. Garcia, and L. S. Cabral. 2001. Characterization of the protein and the carbohydrate fractions and the respective degradation rates of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay at different regrowth ages. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:589-595.
  22. Schulze, E. D. 1993. Soil water deficits and atmosferic humidity as environmental signal in water deficits plants responses from cell to community (Eds. J. C. A. Smith and H. Griffi). Oxford Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, England p. 129-145.
  23. Scudamore, K. A. and T. Livesey. 1998. Occurrence and significance of mycotoxins in forage crops and silage: A rewiew. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:1-17.<1::AID-JSFA9>3.0.CO;2-4
  24. Silva, D. J. and A. C. Queiroz. 2006. Food analysis: Chemical and biological methods. Ed UFV, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 235 p.
  25. Taffarel, L. E., D. D. Castagnara, E. E. Mesquita, P. S. R. Oliveira, M. A. Neres, A. C. Radis, and P. V. Santos. 2011. Hay composition of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with nitrogen. In: Proceedings of the Brazilian Congress Animal Science. 23 Maceio, Brazil. pp. 1-3.
  26. Taffarel, L. E., J. P. Ames, E. E. Mesquita, D. D. Castagnara, P. S. R. Oliveira1, and L. C. Souza. 2011. Chemical composition of Tifton 85 hay in two regrowth ages. In: Proceeding of the Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society of Animal Science. 48, Belem, Brazil. p. 1-3.
  27. Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland 18:104-111.
  28. Turner, J. E., W. K. Coblentz, D. A. Scarbrough, K. P. Coffey, D. W. Kellogg, L. J. McBeth, and R. T. Rhein. 2002. Changes in nutritive value of bermudagrass hay during storage. Agron. J. 94:109-117.
  29. Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. p. 463.
  30. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597.
  31. Welz, B. and M. Sperling. 1999. Atomic Absortion Spectrometry. 3rd ed. Willey-VHC, Weinheim, Germany. 907 p.

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of Tifton 85 during hay production using different nitrogen fertilization rates and dehydration methods vol.12, pp.40, 2017,