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Comparison of the Effects of Pilocarpine Solution and Tablet on Salivary Flow Rate

  • Park, Jo-Eun (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Song, Chan-Woo (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Suk (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University) ;
  • Kim, Mee-Eun (Department of Oral Medicine, College of Dentistry, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2014.12.30
  • Accepted : 2015.01.20
  • Published : 2015.03.30

Abstract

Purpose: Pilocarpine has the effects on improvement of salivary flow and subjective symptoms for xerostomic patients. Because of unwanted side effects following its systemic administration, topical pilocarpine has been paid attention as an alternative. This study aimed to investigate effects of pilocarpine solution as mouthwash on salivary flow and adverse effects compared to systemic administration of 5 mg pilocarpine tablet in healthy subjects. Methods: The study was a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. Five milligrams pilocarpine tablets, 4 mL of 2% pilocarpine solution and placebo solution were given to 12 healthy volunteers (6 males and 6 females) in a predetermined order with wash-out period of at least two days and unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after administration of each drug. Blood pressure and pulse rate was also measured and subjective effect and potential side effects were evaluated by a self-administrated questionnaire. Results: Systemic (5 mg tablet) and topical (2% solution) use of pilocarpine significantly increased salivary flow rate in healthy subjects compared to placebo (p<0.001). In both the pilocarpine solution and tablet groups, salivary flow rates at 120 minutes after administration remained increased. Subjective effect on salivation was the largest in the pilocarpine tablet group, followed by the pilocarpine solution group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in blood pressure and pulse rate after administration of all three drugs. Fewer side effects reported in the pilocarpine solution group than in the tablet group. Conclusions: Two percents pilocarpine solution as mouthwash increases salivary flow rate, definitely superior to placebo solution and comparable to pilocarpine tablet, with fewer side effects in healthy subjects. It indicates a possibility of pilocarpine solution as a useful alternative of pilocarpine tablets for the xerostomic patients with systemic diseases.

Keywords

Administration, topical;Mouthwashes;Pilocarpine;Salivation

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