DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Characteristics of Reading-related Skills in Poor Comprehenders, Poor Readers and Normal Readers in Hangul

읽기장애 유형에 따른 인지능력 특성 연구

  • Park, Hyun-Rin (Dept. of Speech-Language Therapy, Gwangju University)
  • 박현린 (광주대학교 언어치료학과)
  • Received : 2015.01.22
  • Accepted : 2015.03.20
  • Published : 2015.03.28

Abstract

We assessed reading-related skills in children with reading comprehension difficulties ("Poor comprehenders"), word decoding difficulties ("Poor decoders") and normal readers, matched for age and nonverbal IQ. The reading-related skill tests used in our study are phonological processing, visual processing test, and receptive vocabulary test. The authors argue that children who had difficulty in reading comprehension had lower scores only on the phonological short-term memory test compared with normal readers, although their performance on receptive vocabulary and visual processing tests are comparable to normal readers. The results of our study revealed that poor decoders had lower scores on the phonological processing, visual processing, and receptive vocabulary tests.

Keywords

Reading comprehension difficulties;Poor Readers;Reading disability;Support policy for reading disabilities

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Gwangju University

References

  1. J. J. Pikulski and D. J. Chard, Fluency: Bride between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, Vol. 58, No. 9, pp. 510-519, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.58.6.2
  2. G. P. Ouellette, What's meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprhension, Journal of Educational Psychology. Vol. 98, No.3, pp. 554-566, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.554
  3. H. W. Sesma, E. M. Mahone, T. L. Sarah, S. H. Eason, and L. E. Cutting, The contribution of executive skills to reading comprehension, Child Neuropsychology, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 232-246, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297040802220029
  4. J. K. Torgesen, The prevention of reading difficulties, Journal of School Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp.7-26, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4405(01)00092-9
  5. K. Glelani, R. Sidhu, U. Jain, and R. Tannock, Reading comprehension and reading related abilities in adolescents with reading disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Dyslexia, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 364-385, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.285
  6. H. W. Catt, S. M. Adolf, and S. E. Weismer, Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 278-293, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2006/023)
  7. K. Cain, J. Oakhill, and P. Bryant, Children's reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 31-42, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.31
  8. Seung-Jun Hur, and Jong-Hee Jeong, Effects of Story Retelling Strategy on the Reading Comprehension and Fluency of Students with Learning Disabilities, Journal of Special Education, Korea, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 369-387, 2004.
  9. R. K. Wagner, J. K. Torgesen, and C. A. Rashotte, "The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities: New evidence of bidirectional causality from a latent variable longitudinal study," Developmental psychology, Vol.30, No. 1, pp. 73-87, 2004.
  10. J. C. Ziegler, and U. Goswami, Reading acquisition, developmental dyslexia, and skilled reading across languages: A psycholinguistic grain size theory, Psychological Bulletin, Vol.131, No. 1, pp.3-29, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.3
  11. B. Furnes, and S. Samuelson, Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicting early development in reading and spelling: Results from a cross-linguistic longitudinal study, Learning and Individual Differences, Vol.21, No. 1, pp.85-95, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2010.10.005
  12. Y. S. Kim, The foundation of literacy skills in Korean: The relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness and their interrelationship in Korean, Reading and Writing, Vol. 22, No.3, pp. 907-931, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-008-9131-0
  13. J. R. Cho, C. McBride-Chang, and S. G. Park, Phonological awareness and morphological awareness: Differential associations to regular and irregular word recognition in early Koean Hangul readers, Reading and Writing, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 255-274, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9072-z
  14. R. Kail and L. K. Hall, Processing speed, naming speed, and reading, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 949, 2004.
  15. Y. S. Kim, Phonological awareness and literacy skills in Korean: An examination of the unique role of body-coda units, Applied Psycholinguistics, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 69-94, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1017/S014271640707004X
  16. R. Parrila, J. R., Kirby, and L. McQuarrie, Articulation rate, naming speed, verbal short-term memory, and phonological awareness: Longitudinal predictors of early reading development?, Scientific Studies of Reading, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 3-26, 2004 https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0801_2
  17. A. Vaessen. and L, Blomer, Long-term cognitive dynamics of fluent reading development, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, Vol. 105, No. 3, pp. 213-231, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2009.11.005
  18. H. R. Park, and A. Uno, Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: Readers with high, average, and low skill levels, Dyslexia, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 199-215, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.1443
  19. R. Kail, L. K. Hall, and B. J. Caskey, Processing speed, exposure to print, and naming speed, Appl. Psycholinguistics, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 303-314, 1999.
  20. J. R., Kirby, R. K. Parrila, and S. L. Pfeiffer, Naming speed and phonological awareness as predictors of reading development, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 453-464, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.3.453
  21. P. F. de Jong, and A. van der Leij, Effects of phonological abilities and linguistic comprehension on the development of reading, Scientific studis of Reading, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 51-77, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532799XSSR0601_03
  22. K. Landerl, and H. Wimmer, Deficits in phoneme segmentation are not the core problem of dyslexia: Evidence from German and English children, Applied Psycholinguistics, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 243-262, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400002058
  23. K. P. van den Bos, IQ, phonological awareness and continuous-naming speed related to Dutch poor decoding children's performance on two word identification tests, Dyslexia, Vol. 4, No. 2. pp. 73-89, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0909(199806)4:2<73::AID-DYS104>3.0.CO;2-#
  24. Y. S. Kim, Considering linguistic and orthographic features in early literacy acquisition: Evidence from Korean, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 177-189, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.06.003
  25. M. Wolf, and P. Bowers, The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias, Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 415, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.415
  26. S, Franceschini, S. Gori, M. Ruffino, K. Pedrolli, and A. Facoetti, A causal link between visual spatial attention and reading acquisition, Current Biology, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 814-819, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.03.013
  27. M. L. Bosse, M. J. Tainturier, and S. Valdois, Developmental dyslexia: The visual attention span deficit hypothesis. Cognition, Vol. 104, No. 2, pp. 198-230, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.05.009
  28. J. S. Kim, and C. Davis, Characteristics of poor readers of Korean hangul: Auditory, visual and phonological processing, Reading and Writing, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, pp.153-185, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:READ.0000013804.76677.a9
  29. J. R. Cho, and Y. K. Ji, Cognitive profiles of Korean poor readers, Dyslexia, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 312-326, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.439
  30. K. Nation, and M. J. Snowling, Individual differences in contextual facilitation: Evidence from dyslexia and poor reading comprehension, Child Development, Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 996-1011, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06157.x
  31. K. Nation, and M. J. Snowling, Beyond phonological skills: broader language skills contribute to the development of reading, Journal of Research in Reading, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 342-356, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2004.00238.x
  32. W. E. Tunmer, amd J. W. Chapman, The simple view of reading redux: Vocabulary knowledge and the independent components hypothesis, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1-14, 2012.
  33. K. C. Yoon, and C. Brew, A linguistically motivated approach to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion for Korean, Computer Speech & Lnaguage, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 357-381, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csl.2005.03.002
  34. M. Wang, I. Y. Ko, and J. Choi, "The importance of morphological awareness in Korean-English biliteracy acquisition," Contemporary Educational Psychology, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 132-142, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.12.002
  35. J. Raven, J. Court, and J. Raven, Coloured progressive matrices. Oxford, UK: Oxford Psychologists Press, 1995.
  36. Dong-Il Kim, Basic Academic Skills Assessment-BASA: Reading. Seoul, South Korea: Hakjisa Press, 2000.
  37. DOI: http://plaza.snu.ac.kr/-minhs/wb/board.php?bid=minhsfree07&o=h&ot=d&sk=read&no=3
  38. M. Thurlow, K. Liu, D. Albus, and V. Shyyan, Literature on early literacy instruction in four languages (Chinese, Korean, Navajo, Russian), National Center Educudation Outcomes 21 (NCEO), Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2003.
  39. K. Watanabe, T. Ogino, K. Nakano, J. Hattori, Y. Kado, S. Sanada, and Y. Ohtsuka, Y, The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure as a measure of executive function in childhood, Brain and Development, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 564-569, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2005.02.007
  40. M. Kaneko, A. Uno, and N. Haruhara, Relationship between rapid automatizeed naming and Kana reading tasks in preschool children, Journal of Logopedics and Phoniatrics Japan, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 30-34, January 2004.
  41. Young-Tae Kim, Kyung-Hoon Hong, Kyung-Hee Kim, Hye-Sung Chang, and Joo-Yeon, Lee, Receptive and Express Vocabulary Test, Seoul, South Korea: Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2009.
  42. P. Kendeou, E. R. Smith, and E. J. O'Brien, Updating during reading comprehension: Why causality matters, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 854-865, 2013.
  43. B. Carretti, E. Borella, C. Cornoldi, and De Beni, "Role of working memory in explaining the performance of individuals with specific reading comprhension difficulties: A meta-analysis", Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 246-251, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.10.002
  44. K. Nation, J. Cocksey, J. S. Taylor, and D. V. Bishop, A longitudinal investigation of early reading and language skills in children with poor reading comprehension, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 1031-1039, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02254.x
  45. R. De Beni, P. Palladino, F. Pazzaglia, and C. Cornoldi, "Increase in instruction errors and working memory deficit of poor comprehenders," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 51, Vol. 2, pp. 305-320, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1080/713755761