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Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with HCV Infection in Egyptian Patients

  • Zekri, Abdel-Rahman (Virology and Immunolgy Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Youssef, Amira Salah El-Din (Virology and Immunolgy Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Bakr, Yasser Mabrouk (Virology and Immunolgy Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Gabr, Reham Mohamed (Virology and Immunolgy Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • El-Rouby, Mahmoud Nour El-Din (Virology and Immunolgy Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute) ;
  • Hammad, Ibtisam (Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University) ;
  • Ahmed, Entsar Abd El-Monaem (Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University) ;
  • Marzouk, Hanan Abd El-Haleem (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University) ;
  • Nabil, Mohammed Mahmoud (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University) ;
  • Hamed, Hanan Abd El-Hafez (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University) ;
  • Aly, Yasser Hamada Ahmed (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University) ;
  • Zachariah, Khaled S. (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University) ;
  • Esmat, Gamal (Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University)
  • Published : 2015.03.04

Abstract

Background: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma using serological markers with better sensitivity and specificity than alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is needed. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum sICAM-1, ${\beta}$-catenin, IL-8, proteasome and sTNFR-II in early detection of HCC. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, sICAM-1, sTNFR-II, proteasome and ${\beta}$-catenin were measured by ELISA assay in 479 serum samples from 192 patients with HCC, 96 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), 96 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and 95 healthy controls. Results: Serum levels of proteasome, sICAM-1, ${\beta}$-catenin and ${\alpha}FP$ were significantly elevated in HCC group compared to other groups (P-value<0.001), where serum level of IL-8 was significantly elevated in the LC and HCC groups compared to CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001), while no significant difference was noticed in patients with HCC and LC (P-value=0.09). Serum level of sTNFR-II was significantly elevated in patients with LC compared to HCC, CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001); also it was significantly higher in HCC compared to CHC and control groups (P-value <0.001). ROC curve analysis of the studied markers between HCC and other groups revealed that the serum level of proteasome had sensitivity of 75.9% and specificity of 73.4% at a cut-off value of $0.32{\mu}g/ml$ with AUC 0.803 sICAM-1 at cut off value of 778ng/ml, the sensitivity was 75.8% and the specificity was 71.8% with AUC 0.776. ${\beta}$-catenin had sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 68.6% respectively at a cut off value of 8.75ng/ml with an AUC of 0.729. sTNFR-II showed sensitivity of 86.3% and specificity of 51.8% at a cut off value of 6239.5pg/ml with an AUC of 0.722. IL-8 had sensitivity of 70.4% and specificity of 52.3% at a cut off value of 51.5pg/ml with AUC 0.631. Conclusions: Our data supported the role of proteasome, sICAM-1, sTNFR-II and ${\beta}$-catenin in early detection of HCC. Also, using this panel of serological markers in combination with ${\alpha}FP$ may offer improved diagnostic performance over ${\alpha}FP$ alone in the early detection of HCC.

Keywords

Hepatocellular carcinoma;${\alpha}FP$;sICAM-1;proteasome;${\beta}$-catenin;IL-8;sTNFR-II

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