DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Geographic Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes - Review of International Patterns

  • Baade, Peter D. (Cancer Council Queensland, Queensland University of Technology) ;
  • Yu, Xue Qin (Cancer Council New South Wales) ;
  • Smith, David P. (Griffith Health Institute) ;
  • Dunn, Jeff (Cancer Council Queensland, Queensland University of Technology) ;
  • Chambers, Suzanne K. (Cancer Council Queensland, Queensland University of Technology)
  • Published : 2015.03.04

Abstract

Background: This study reviewed the published evidence as to how prostate cancer outcomes vary across geographical remoteness and area level disadvantage. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature published from January 1998 to January 2014 was undertaken: Medline and CINAHL databases were searched in February to May 2014. The search terms included terms of 'Prostate cancer' and 'prostatic neoplasms' coupled with 'rural health', 'urban health', 'geographic inequalities', 'spatial', 'socioeconomic', 'disadvantage', 'health literacy' or 'health service accessibility'. Outcome specific terms were 'incidence', 'mortality', 'prevalence', 'survival', 'disease progression', 'PSA testing' or 'PSA screening', 'treatment', 'treatment complications' and 'recurrence'. A further search through internet search engines was conducted to identify any additional relevant published reports. Results: 91 papers were included in the review. While patterns were sometimes contrasting, the predominate patterns were for PSA testing to be more common in urban (5 studies out of 6) and affluent areas (2 of 2), higher prostate cancer incidence in urban (12 of 22) and affluent (18 of 20), greater risk of advanced stage prostate cancer in rural (7 of 11) and disadvantaged (8 of 9), higher survival in urban (8 of 13) and affluent (16 of 18), greater access or use of definitive treatment services in urban (6 of 9) and affluent (7 of 7), and higher prostate mortality in rural (10 of 20) and disadvantaged (8 of 16) areas. Conclusions: Future studies may need to utilise a mixed methods approach, in which the quantifiable attributes of the individuals living within areas are measured along with the characteristics of the areas themselves, but importantly include a qualitative examination of the lived experience of people within those areas. These studies should be conducted across a range of international countries using consistent measures and incorporate dialogue between clinicians, epidemiologists, policy advocates and disease control specialists.

Keywords

Prostate cancer;geography;inequalities;incidence;survival;mortality;PSA testing

References

  1. Aarts MJ, Koldewijn EL, Poortmans PM, et al (2013). The impact of socioeconomic status on prostate cancer treatment and survival in the southern Netherlands. Urol, 81, 593-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.11.011
  2. Adler NE, Ostrove JM (1999). Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we don't. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 896, 3-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb08101.x
  3. AIHW (2013a). Cancer survival and prevalence in Australia: period estimates from 1982 to 2010. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol, 9, 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajco.12062
  4. Altekruse SF, Huang L, Cucinelli JE, et al (2010). Spatial patterns of localized-stage prostate cancer incidence among white and black men in the southeastern United States, 1999-2001. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 1460-7. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-1310
  5. Baade PD, Youlden DR, Coory MD, et al (2011). Urban-rural differences in prostate cancer outcomes in Australia: what has changed? Med J Aust, 194, 293-6.
  6. Baade PD, Youlden DR, Krnjacki LJ (2009). International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends. Mol Nutr Food Res, 53, 171-84. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700511
  7. Baldwin LM, Andrilla CH, Porter MP, et al (2013). Treatment of early-stage prostate cancer among rural and urban patients. Cancer, 119, 3067-75. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28037
  8. Byers TE, Wolf HJ, Bauer KR, et al (2008). The impact of socioeconomic status on survival after cancer in the United States : findings from the national program of cancer registries patterns of care study. Cancer, 113, 582-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23567
  9. Campbell NC, Elliott AM, Sharp L, et al (2000). Rural factors and survival from cancer: analysis of Scottish cancer registrations. Br J Cancer, 82, 1863-6. https://doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.1999.1079
  10. Cheng I, Witte JS, McClure LA, et al (2009). Socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates among the diverse population of California. Cancer Causes Control, 20, 1431-40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-009-9369-0
  11. Chu DI, Freedland SJ (2010). Prostate cancer. socioeconomic status and disparities in treatment patterns. Nat Rev Urol, 7, 480-1. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrurol.2010.121
  12. Chu DI, Moreira DM, Gerber L, et al (2012). Effect of race and socioeconomic status on surgical margins and biochemical outcomes in an equal-access health care setting: results from the shared equal access regional cancer hospital (search) database. Cancer, 118, 4999-5007. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27456
  13. Clegg LX, Reichman ME, Miller BA, et al (2009). Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: national longitudinal mortality study. Cancer Causes Control, 20, 417-35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-008-9256-0
  14. Coleman MP, Rachet B, Woods LM, et al (2004). Trends and socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in England and Wales up to 2001. Br J Cancer, 90, 1367-73. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6601696
  15. Colli JL, Amling CL (2008). Prostate cancer mortality rates compared to urologist population densities and prostatespecific antigen screening levels on a state-by-state basis in the United States of America. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 11, 247-51. https://doi.org/10.1038/pcan.2008.7
  16. Coory MD, Baade PD (2005). Urban-rural differences in prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy and prostate-specific antigen testing in Australia. Med J Aust, 182, 112-5.
  17. Corboy D, McLaren S, Jenkins M, et al (2014). The relationship between geographic remoteness and intentions to use a telephone support service among Australian men following radical prostatectomy. Psychooncol.
  18. Cramb SM, Mengersen KL, Baade PD (2011b). Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach. BMC Cancer, 11, 311. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-11-311
  19. DeChello LM, Gregorio DI, Samociuk H (2006). Race-specific geography of prostate cancer incidence. Int J Health Geogr, 5, 59. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-5-59
  20. Dixon J, Welch N (2000). Researching the rural-metropolitan health differential using the 'social determinants of health'. Aust J Rural Health, 8, 254-60.
  21. Du XL, Fang S, Coker AL, et al (2006). Racial disparity and socioeconomic status in association with survival in older men with local/regional stage prostate carcinoma: findings from a large community-based cohort. Cancer, 106, 1276-85. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21732
  22. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2013). Globocan 2012 v1.0, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancerbase No. 11 [Online]. Lyon, France: international agency for research on cancer.
  23. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2013). Globocan 2012 v1.0, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC cancerbase No. 11 [Online]. Lyon, France: international agency for research on cancer.
  24. Garg V, Raisch DW, Selig JP, et al (2013). Health disparities in clinical practice patterns for prostate cancer screening by geographic regions in the United States: a multilevel modeling analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 16, 193-203.
  25. Gilbert SM, Kuo YF, Shahinian VB (2011). Prevalent and incident use of androgen deprivation therapy among men with prostate cancer in the United States. Urol Oncol, 29, 647-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.09.004
  26. Goovaerts P, Xiao H (2011). Geographical, temporal and racial disparities in late-stage prostate cancer incidence across Florida: a multiscale joinpoint regression analysis. Int J Health Geogr, 10, 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-10-63
  27. Gregorio DI, Huang L, DeChello LM, et al (2007). Place of residence effect on likelihood of surviving prostate cancer. Ann Epidemiol, 17, 520-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.12.003
  28. Gregorio DI, Kulldorff M, Sheehan TJ, et al (2004). Geographic distribution of prostate cancer incidence in the era of PSA testing, connecticut, 1984 to 1998. Urol, 63, 78-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2003.08.008
  29. Gregorio DI, Kulldorff M, Sheehan TJ, et al (2004). Geographic distribution of prostate cancer incidence in the era of PSA testing, connecticut, 1984 to 1998. Urol, 63, 78-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2003.08.008
  30. Gregorio DI, Samociuk H, DeChello L, et al (2006). Effects of study area size on geographic characterizations of health events: prostate cancer incidence in Southern New England, USA, 1994-1998. Int J Health Geogr, 5, 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-5-8
  31. Hall SE, Holman CD, Wisniewski ZS, et al (2005). Prostate cancer: socio-economic, geographical and private-health insurance effects on care and survival. BJU Int, 95, 51-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.05248.x
  32. Hayen A, Smith DP, Patel MI, et al (2008). Patterns of surgical care for prostate cancer in NSW, 1993-2002: rural/urban and socio-economic variation. Aust N Z J Public Health, 32, 417-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.2008.00272.x
  33. Haynes R, Pearce J, Barnett R (2008). Cancer survival in New Zealand: ethnic, social and geographical inequalities. Soc Sci Med, 67, 928-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.05.005
  34. Higginbotham JC, Moulder J, Currier M (2001). Rural v. urban aspects of cancer: first-year data from the mississippi central cancer registry. Fam Community Health, 24, 1-9.
  35. Higginbotham JC, Moulder J, Currier M (2001). Rural v. urban aspects of cancer: first-year data from the mississippi central cancer registry. Fam Community Health, 24, 1-9.
  36. Holowaty EJ, Norwood TA, Wanigaratne S, et al (2010). Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study. Int J Health Geogr, 9, 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-9-21
  37. Jarup L, Best N, Toledano MB, et al (2002). Geographical epidemiology of prostate cancer in Great Britain. Int J Cancer, 97, 695-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10113
  38. Jemal A, Kulldorff M, Devesa SS, et al (2002). A geographic analysis of prostate cancer mortality in the United States, 1970-89. Int J Cancer, 101, 168-74. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10594
  39. Jemal A, Ward E, Wu X, et al (2005). Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality and variations in access to medical care in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 590-5. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0522
  40. Johnson GD (2004). Small area mapping of prostate cancer incidence in New York State (USA) using fully Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Int J Health Geogr, 3, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-3-29
  41. Johnson GD (2004). Small area mapping of prostate cancer incidence in New York State (USA) using fully Bayesian hierarchical modelling. Int J Health Geogr, 3, 29. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-3-29
  42. Jones AP, Haynes R, Sauerzapf V, et al (2008a). Travel time to hospital and treatment for breast, colon, rectum, lung, ovary and prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer, 44, 992-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.02.001
  43. Jones AP, Haynes R, Sauerzapf V, et al (2008b). Travel times to health care and survival from cancers in Northern England. Eur J Cancer, 44, 269-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2007.07.028
  44. Jong KE, Smith DP, Yu XQ, et al (2004). Remoteness of residence and survival from cancer in New South Wales. Med J Aust, 180, 618-22.
  45. King D, Miranda P, Gor B, et al (2010). Addressing cancer health disparities using a global biopsychosocial approach. Cancer, 116, 264-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24765
  46. Klassen AC, Platz EA (2006). What can geography tell us about prostate cancer? Am J Prev Med, 30, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.08.045
  47. Klassen AC, Platz EA (2006). What can geography tell us about prostate cancer? Am J Prev Med, 30, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.08.045
  48. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE (1997). Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health, 18, 341-78. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.18.1.341
  49. Lagace C, Desmeules M, Pong RW, et al (2007). Noncommunicable disease and injury-related mortality in rural and urban places of residence: a comparison between Canada and Australia. Can J Public Health, 98, 62-9.
  50. Liu L, Cozen W, Bernstein L, et al (2001). Changing relationship between socioeconomic status and prostate cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst, 93, 705-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/93.9.705
  51. Lyratzopoulos G, Barbiere JM, Greenberg DC, et al (2010). Population based time trends and socioeconomic variation in use of radiotherapy and radical surgery for prostate cancer in a UK region: continuous survey. BMJ, 340, 1928. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1928
  52. Major JM, Norman Oliver M, Doubeni CA, et al (2012). Socioeconomic status, healthcare density, and risk of prostate cancer among African American and Caucasian men in a large prospective study. Cancer Causes Control, 23, 1185-91. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-012-9988-8
  53. Maringe C, Mangtani P, Rachet B, et al (2013). Cancer incidence in South Asian migrants to England, 1986-2004: unraveling ethnic from socioeconomic differentials. Int J Cancer, 132, 1886-94. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27826
  54. Mariotto A, Capocaccia R, Verdecchia A, et al (2002). Projecting SEER cancer survival rates to the US: an ecological regression approach. Cancer Causes Control, 13, 101-11. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014380323037
  55. Marsa K, Johnsen NF, Bidstrup PE, et al (2008). Social inequality and incidence of and survival from male genital cancer in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003. Eur J Cancer, 44, 2018-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.06.012
  56. Martinez-Beneito MA, Zurriaga O, Botella-Rocamora P, et al (2013). Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health, 13, 480. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-480
  57. Martinez-Beneito MA, Zurriaga O, Botella-Rocamora P, et al (2013). Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis. BMC Public Health, 13, 480. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-480
  58. McLafferty S, Wang F (2009). Rural reversal? Rural-urban disparities in late-stage cancer risk in Illinois. Cancer, 115, 2755-64. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24306
  59. Meijer M, Bloomfield K, Engholm G (2013). Neighbourhoods matter too: the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic position, population density and breast, prostate and lung cancer incidence in Denmark between 2004 and 2008. J Epidemiol Community Health, 67, 6-13. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2011-200192
  60. Meliker JR, Goovaerts P, Jacquez GM, et al (2009). Breast and prostate cancer survival in Michigan: can geographic analyses assist in understanding racial disparities? Cancer, 115, 2212-21. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24251
  61. Mokete M, Shackley DC, Betts CD, et al (2006). The increased rate of prostate specific antigen testing has not affected prostate cancer presentation in an inner city population in the UK. BJU Int, 97, 266-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2005.06011.x
  62. Moore SP, O’Rourke PK, Mallitt KA, et al (2010). Cancer incidence and mortality in Indigenous Australians in Queensland, 1997-2006. Med J Aust, 193, 590-3.
  63. Morgan RM, Steele RJ, Nabi G, et al (2013). Socioeconomic variation and prostate specific antigen testing in the community: a United Kingdom based population study. J Urol, 190, 1207-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2013.04.044
  64. Morgan RM, Steele RJ, Nabi G, et al (2013). Socioeconomic variation and prostate specific antigen testing in the community: a United Kingdom based population study. J Urol, 190, 1207-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2013.04.044
  65. Newman L, Baum F, Harris E (2006). Federal, state and territory government responses to health inequities and the social determinants of health in Australia. Health Promot J Austr, 17, 217-25.
  66. Niu X, Pawlish KS, Roche LM (2010). Cancer survival disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in New Jersey. J Health Care Poor Underserved, 21, 144-60. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0263
  67. Obertova Z, Brown C, Holmes M, et al (2012). Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in rural men-a systematic review of the literature. Rural Remote Health, 12, 2039.
  68. Ocana-Riola R, Sanchez-Cantalejo C, Rosell J, et al (2004). Socio-economic level, farming activities and risk of cancer in small areas of Southern Spain. Eur J Epidemiol, 19, 643-50.
  69. Odisho AY, Cooperberg MR, Fradet V, et al (2010). Urologist density and county-level urologic cancer mortality. J Clin Oncol, 28, 2499-504. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.26.9597
  70. Oliver MN, Smith E, Siadaty M, et al (2006). Spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence and race in Virginia, 1990-1999. Am J Prev Med, 30, 67-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.08.037
  71. Pampalon R, Martinez J, Hamel D (2006). Does living in rural areas make a difference for health in Quebec? Health Place, 12, 421-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.04.002
  72. Pukkala E, Weiderpass E (2002). Socio-economic differences in incidence rates of cancers of the male genital organs in Finland, 1971-95. Int J Cancer, 102, 643-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10749
  73. Rogerson PA, Sinha G, Han D (2006). Recent changes in the spatial pattern of prostate cancer in the U.S. Am J Prev Med, 30, 50-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.09.006
  74. Rowan S, Rachet B, Alexe DM, et al (2008). Survival from prostate cancer in England and Wales up to 2001. Br J Cancer, 99, 75-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604595
  75. Rusiecki JA, Kulldorff M, Nuckols JR, et al (2006). Geographically based investigation of prostate cancer mortality in four U.S. Northern Plain states. Am J Prev Med, 30, 101-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.10.010
  76. Rusiecki JA, Kulldorff M, Nuckols JR, et al (2006). Geographically based investigation of prostate cancer mortality in four U.S. Northern Plain states. Am J Prev Med, 30, 101-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.10.010
  77. Saliba V, Legido-Quigley H, Hallik R, et al (2012). Telemedicine across borders: a systematic review of factors that hinder or support implementation. Int J Med Inform, 81, 793-809. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2012.08.003
  78. Sanderson M, Coker AL, Perez A, et al (2006). A multilevel analysis of socioeconomic status and prostate cancer risk. Ann Epidemiol, 16, 901-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.02.006
  79. Schwartz K, Powell IJ, Underwood W, 3rd, et al (2009). Interplay of race, socioeconomic status, and treatment on survival of patients with prostate cancer. Urol, 74, 1296-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2009.02.058
  80. Schwartz KL, Crossley-May H, Vigneau FD, et al (2003). Race, socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis for five common malignancies. Cancer Causes Control, 14, 761-6. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026321923883
  81. Schymura MJ, Kahn AR, German RR, et al (2010). Factors associated with initial treatment and survival for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the CDC-NPCR Patterns of Care Study (PoC1). BMC Cancer, 10, 152. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-152
  82. Shafique K, Morrison DS (2013). Socio-economic inequalities in survival of patients with prostate cancer: role of age and Gleason grade at diagnosis. PLoS One, 8, 56184. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056184
  83. Shafique K, Morrison DS (2013). Socio-economic inequalities in survival of patients with prostate cancer: role of age and Gleason grade at diagnosis. PLoS One, 8, 56184. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056184
  84. Singh GK, Williams SD, Siahpush M, et al (2011). Socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US cancer mortality: part I-all cancers and lung cancer and part II-colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. J Cancer Epidemiol, 2011, 107497.
  85. Skolarus TA, Chan S, Shelton JB, et al (2013). Quality of prostate cancer care among rural men in the veterans health administration. Cancer, 119, 3629-35. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28275
  86. Smailyte G, Kurtinaitis J (2008). Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania. BMC Public Health, 8, 56. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-56
  87. Smith T (2012). A long way from home: access to cancer care for rural Australians. Radiography, 18, 38-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2011.10.041
  88. Soto-Salgado M, Suarez E, Torres-Cintron M, et al (2012). Prostate cancer incidence and mortality among Puerto Ricans: an updated analysis comparing men in Puerto Rico with US racial/ethnic groups. PR Health Sci J, 31, 107-13.
  89. Soto-Salgado M, Suarez E, Torres-Cintron M, et al (2012). Prostate cancer incidence and mortality among Puerto Ricans: an updated analysis comparing men in Puerto Rico with US racial/ethnic groups. PR Health Sci J, 31, 107-13.
  90. Turrell G, Oldenburg BF, Harris E, et al (2004). Utilisation of general practitioner services by socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Aust N Z J Public Health, 28, 152-8.
  91. Wan N, Zhan FB, Cai Z (2011). Socioeconomic disparities in prostate cancer mortality and the impact of geographic scale. South Med J, 104, 553-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31821f99ff
  92. White A, Coker AL, Du XL, et al (2011). Racial/ethnic disparities in survival among men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Texas. Cancer, 117, 1080-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25671
  93. Williams N, Hughes LJ, Turner EL, et al (2011). Prostate-specific antigen testing rates remain low in UK general practice: a cross-sectional study in six English cities. BJU Int, 108, 1402-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10163.x
  94. Xiao H, Tan F, Goovaerts P (2011). Racial and geographic disparities in late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis in Florida. J Health Care Poor Underserved, 22, 187-99. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2011.0155
  95. Yang CY, Hsieh YL (1998). The relationship between population density and cancer mortality in Taiwan. Jpn J Cancer Res, 89, 355-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1349-7006.1998.tb00571.x
  96. Yin D, Morris C, Allen M, et al (2010). Does socioeconomic disparity in cancer incidence vary across racial/ethnic groups? Cancer Causes Control, 21, 1721-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-010-9601-y
  97. Yu M, Tatalovich Z, Gibson JT, et al (2014a). Using a composite index of socioeconomic status to investigate health disparities while protecting the confidentiality of cancer registry data. Cancer Causes Control, 25, 81-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-013-0310-1
  98. Yu XQ, Baade PD, O'Connell DL (2012). Conditional survival of cancer patients: an Australian perspective. BMC Cancer, 12, 460. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-460
  99. Yu XQ, Luo Q, Smith DP, et al (2014b). Geographic variation in prostate cancer survival in New South Wales. Med J Aust, 200, 586-90. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja13.11134
  100. Zhu Y, Sorkin JD, Dwyer D, et al (2011). Predictors of repeated PSA testing among black and white men from the Maryland Cancer Survey, 2006. Prev Chronic Dis, 8, 114.

Cited by

  1. Human Kallikrein-2, Prostate Specific Antigen and Free-Prostate Specific Antigen in Combination to Discriminate Prostate Cancer from Benign Diseases in Syrian Patients vol.16, pp.16, 2015, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.16.7085
  2. Does where you live influence how your vestibular schwannoma is managed? Examining geographical differences in vestibular schwannoma treatment across the United States vol.129, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11060-016-2170-5
  3. Incidentally Detected Adenocarcinoma Prostate in Transurethral Resection of Prostate Specimens: a Hospital Based Study from India vol.17, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2016.17.4.2255
  4. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal vol.26, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000285
  5. Expression of fatty acid synthase and E-cadherin markers in cancer of the prostate vol.37, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.XEJ.0000520911.05599.41
  6. Differences in prostate tumor characteristics and survival among religious groups in Songkhla, Thailand vol.18, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-5102-2
  7. Impact of individual and neighborhood factors on socioeconomic disparities in localized and advanced prostate cancer risk vol.29, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-018-1071-7
  8. Exploring treatment decision-making in cancer management for rural residents: Patient and provider perspectives on a recently established regional radiotherapy service vol.14, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/ajco.12873
  9. Social determinants of prostate cancer in the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis vol.18, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5696-y